As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 14, 2022

Registration No. 333-258196

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549


Amendment No. 5

to

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

Under

The Securities Act of 1933


AXT, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)



incorporation or organization)


Identification Number)

Delaware

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

94-3031310

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

4281 Technology Drive

Fremont, California 94538

(510) 438-4700

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

Morris S. Young

Chief Executive Officer

4281 Technology Drive

Fremont, California 94538

(510) 438-4700

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

Copies to:

Andrew D. Hoffman

Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati,

Professional Corporation

650 Page Mill Road

Palo Alto, CA 94304

(650) 493-9300

From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.
(Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public)

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. The securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion, dated April 14, 2022

Prospectus

Graphic

AXT, Inc.

$60,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Depositary Shares

Warrants

Subscription Rights

Purchase Contracts

Units

AXT, Inc., a Delaware corporation (unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “AXT,” “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to AXT, Inc.), may issue securities from time to time in one or more offerings, in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of the offering. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus, which will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest. The aggregate offering price of the securities we sell pursuant to this prospectus will not exceed $60,000,000.

The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of those securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from that sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “AXTI.” Each prospectus supplement will indicate whether the securities offered thereby will be listed on any securities exchange.

We are a worldwide materials science company that develops and produces high-performance compound and single element semiconductor substrates, also known as wafers. Our principal corporate office is located in Fremont, California and all of our products are manufactured in the People’s Republic of China (the “PRC” or “China”) by our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures. We are neither a PRC operating company nor do we conduct our operations in China through the use of variable interest entities (“VIEs”). Accordingly, since the Company is a Delaware corporation,The Company believes that it does not require any permissions or approvals from the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”) or other PRC government authorities to complete this offering of securities because it is a Delaware corporation with its principal corporate office in Fremont, California and the PRC laws and regulations that govern the listing of securities on a U.S. securities exchange apply to PRC companies. Recent statements and regulatory actions by China’s government on the use of VIEs and data security or anti-monopoly concerns have not impacted our ability to conduct our business or continue to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

We have created a vertically-integrated supply chain and transfer cash through our corporate structure in three ways. First, we capitalize our investments in our PRC subsidiaries. We license to our PRC subsidiaries intellectual property and receive from our PRC subsidiaries royalty payments. Second, we use transfer pricing arrangements to buy from our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures wafers and raw materials. We also sell to our PRC subsidiaries capital equipment that we purchase at the request of our PRC subsidiaries and for which we are reimbursed by the applicable PRC subsidiary. We review the terms of the transfer pricing arrangements annually with BPM LLP (“BPM”), our independent registered public accounting firm. Third, our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures have paid dividends to entities within the Company’s corporate structure. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, the aggregate dividends paid to the Company, directly or to an intermediate entity within our corporate structure, by our PRC subsidiaries and PRC raw material joint ventures were approximately $774,000 and $0, respectively. In June 2021, the Company received a $774,000 dividend from one of our equity investments, Xiaoyi XingAn Gallium Co., Ltd. For years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, the aggregate dividends paid to minority shareholders by our PRC subsidiaries and PRC raw material joint ventures were approximately $0 and $89,000, respectively. All of these distributions were paid to our PRC subsidiaries and the minority shareholders. We have no current intentions to distribute to our investors earnings under our corporate structure. We settle amounts owed under our transfer pricing arrangements in the ordinary course of business.

The cash generated from one PRC subsidiary is not used to fund another PRC subsidiary’s operations. None of our PRC subsidiaries has ever faced difficulties or limitations on its ability to transfer cash between our subsidiaries. We have cash management policies that dictate the amount of such funding.

Investing in these securities involves risks. We are subject to a number of unique legal and operational risks associated with our corporate structure, any of which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our common stock or cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless. Please carefully read the information beginning on page 9 of this prospectus and included in “Item 1A – Risk Factors” of our most recent report on Form 10-K or 10-Q that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you invest in our securities. In particular, the following risk factors address issues associated with our corporate structure:

Although we are a Delaware corporation and are neither a PRC operating company nor do we conduct our operations in China through the use of VIEs, in the event we inadvertently concluded that we do not require any permissions or approvals from the CSRC or other PRC government authorities to complete this offering of securities or applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change, we may be required to obtain such permissions or approvals to complete this offering of securities.

The PRC government may intervene in or influence our PRC operations at any time and the rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice.


The PRC government may also exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our common stock.

Changes in China’s political, social, regulatory or economic environments may affect our financial performance.

Joint venture raw material companies in China bring certain risks.

Risks exist in utilizing our new gallium arsenide manufacturing sites efficiently.

The Chinese central government is increasingly aware of air pollution and other forms of environmental pollution and their reform efforts can impact our manufacturing, including intermittent mandatory shutdowns.

Shutdowns or underutilizing our manufacturing facilities may result in declines in our gross margins.

Enhanced trade tariffs, import restrictions, export restrictions, Chinese regulations or other trade barriers may materially harm our business.

If China places restrictions on freight and transportation routes and on ports of entry and departure this could result in shipping delays or increased costs for shipping.

Our international operations are exposed to potential adverse tax consequence in China.

We derive a significant portion of our revenue from international sales, and our ability to sustain and increase our international sales involves significant risks.

The terms of the private equity raised in China as a first step toward an initial public offering (the “IPO”) of shares of our wafer manufacturing company, Beijing Tongmei Xtal Technology Co., Ltd. (“Tongmei”), on the Shanghai Stock Exchange’s Sci-Tech innovAtion boaRd (the “STAR Market”) grant each investor a right of redemption if Tongmei fails to achieve its IPO.

We are subject to foreign exchange gains and losses that may materially impact our income statement.

Although the audit report incorporated by reference in this prospectus is prepared by an independent registered public accounting firm that is currently inspected fully by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”), there is no guarantee that future audit reports will be prepared by an independent registered public accounting firm that is completely inspected by the PCAOB.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is , 2022.



About this Prospectus

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities that may be offered. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from that contained, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

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Prospectus Summary

This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus. It does not contain all of the information that may be important to you and your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the matters set forth under the section of this prospectus captioned “Risk Factors” and the financial statements and related notes and other information that we incorporate by reference herein, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “AXT,” “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to AXT, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

Company Overview

AXT is a worldwide materials science company that develops and produces high-performance compound and single element semiconductor wafers. Two of our consolidated PRC subsidiaries produce and sell certain raw materials, some of which are used in our substrate manufacturing process and some of which are sold to other companies.

Our substrate wafers are used when a typical silicon substrate wafer cannot meet the performance requirements of a semiconductor or optoelectronic device. The dominant substrates used in producing semiconductor chips and other electronic circuits are made from silicon. However, certain chips may become too hot or perform their function too slowly if silicon is used as the base material. In addition, optoelectronic applications, such as LED lighting and chip-based lasers, do not use silicon substrates because they require a wave form frequency that cannot be achieved using silicon. Alternative or specialty materials are used to replace silicon as the preferred base in these situations. Our wafers provide such alternative or specialty materials. We do not design or manufacture the chips. We add value by researching, developing and producing the specialty material wafers. We have two product lines: specialty material substrates and raw materials integral to these substrates. Our compound substrates combine indium with phosphorous (indium phosphide: InP) or gallium with arsenic (gallium arsenide: GaAs). Our single element substrates are made from germanium (Ge).

Our supply chain strategy includes two consolidated raw material companies. One of these consolidated companies produces pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles, which are used in our own ingot growth processes or sold in the open market to other companies. The second consolidated company converts raw gallium to purified gallium. Our substrate product group uses purified gallium in producing our GaAs substrates and it is also sold in the open market to other companies. Our substrate product group generated 75%, 79% and 81% of our consolidated revenue and our raw materials and other product group generated 25%, 21% and 19% for 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

The following chart shows our substrate products and their materials, diameters and illustrative applications and shows our raw materials group primary products and their illustrative uses and applications.

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Products

    

Substrate Group and Wafer Diameter

Sample of Applications

Indium Phosphide

• Data center connectivity using light/lasers

(InP)

• 5G communications

2”, 3”, 4”

• Fiber optic lasers and detectors

• Passive Optical Networks (PONs)

• Silicon photonics

• Photonic Integrated circuits (PICs)

• High efficiency terrestrial solar cells (CPV)

• RF amplifier and switching (military wireless & 5G)

• Infrared light-emitting diode (LEDs) motion control

• Lidar for robotics and autonomous vehicles

• Infrared thermal imaging

Gallium Arsenide

• Wi-Fi devices

(GaAs - semi-insulating)

• IoT devices

1”, 2”, 3”, 4”, 5”, 6”

• High-performance transistors

• Direct broadcast television

• Power amplifiers for wireless devices

• Satellite communications

• High efficiency solar cells for drones and automobiles

• Solar cells

Gallium Arsenide

• High brightness LEDs

(GaAs - semi-conducting)

• Screen displays using micro-LEDs

1”, 2”, 3”, 4”, 5”, 6”

• Printer head lasers and LEDs

• 3-D sensing using VCSELs

• Data center communication using VCSELs

• Sensors for industrial robotics/Near-infrared sensors

• Laser machining, cutting and drilling

• Optical couplers

• High efficiency solar cells for drones and automobiles

• Other lasers

• Night vision goggles

• Lidar for robotics and autonomous vehicles

• Solar cells

Germanium

• Multi-junction solar cells for satellites

(Ge)

• Optical sensors and detectors

2”, 4”, 6”

• Terrestrial concentrated photo voltaic (CPV) cells

• Infrared detectors

• Carrier wafer for LED

Raw Materials Group

6N+ and 7N+ purified gallium

• Key material in single crystal ingots such as:

- Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

- Gallium Nitride (GaN)

- Gallium Antimonite (GaSb)

- Gallium Phosphide (GaP)

Boron trioxide (B2O3)

• Encapsulant in the ingot growth of III-V compound semiconductors

Gallium-Magnesium alloy

• Used for the synthesis of organo-gallium compounds in epitaxial growth on semiconductor wafers

pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles

• Used when growing single-crystal compound semiconductor ingots

• Used as effusion rings growing OLED tools

pBN insulating parts

• Used in MOCVD reactors

• Used when growing epitaxial layers in Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) reactors

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All of our products are manufactured in the PRC by our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures. The PRC generally has favorable costs for facilities and labor compared with comparable facilities in the United States, Europe or Japan. Our supply chain includes partial ownership of raw material companies in China (subsidiaries/joint ventures). We believe this supply chain arrangement provides us with pricing advantages, reliable supply, market trend visibility and better sourcing lead-times for key raw materials central to manufacturing our substrates. Our raw material companies produce materials, including raw gallium (4N Ga), high purity gallium (6N and 7N Ga), starting material for InP, arsenic, germanium, germanium dioxide, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles and boron oxide (B2O3). We have board representation in all of these raw material companies. We consolidate the companies in which we have either a controlling financial interest, or majority financial interest combined with the ability to exercise substantive control over the operations, or financial decisions, of such companies. We use the equity method to account for companies in which we have smaller financial interest and have the ability to exercise significant influence, but not control, over such companies. We purchase portions of the materials produced by these companies for our own use and they sell the remainder of their production to third parties.

Begun in 2017, the relocation of our gallium arsenide production lines is now completed. Our PRC subsidiary, Baoding Tongmei Xtal Technology Co., Ltd. (“Baoding Tongmei”) entered into volume production in 2020. We transferred 100% of our ingot production to the new manufacturing facility of our PRC subsidiary, ChaoYang Tongmei Xtal Technology Co., Ltd., in Kazuo, a city approximately 250 miles from Beijing. We transferred our wafer processing equipment for gallium arsenide to Baoding Tongmei’s new manufacturing facility in Dingxing, a city approximately 75 miles from Beijing. These new facilities enabled us to expand capacity and upgrade some of the equipment. The new buildings are large enough that our PRC subsidiaries can install additional equipment if market demand increases or if we gain market share. Our PRC subsidiaries also acquired sufficient land to enable them to add facilities, if needed in the future.

On November 16, 2020, we announced a strategic initiative to access China’s capital markets by beginning a process to list shares of Tongmei in an IPO on the STAR Market. To qualify for a STAR Market listing, the first major step in the process was to engage private equity firms in China (“Investors”) to invest funds in Tongmei. By December 31, 2020, 10 Investors had engaged with Tongmei for a total investment of approximately $48.1 million. (The currency used in the investment transactions was the Chinese renminbi, which has been converted to approximate U.S. dollars for this prospectus.) The remaining investment of approximately $1.5 million of new capital was funded in early January 2021. The government approved the approximately $49 million investment in its entirety on January 25, 2021. In exchange for an investment of approximately $49 million, the Investors received a 7.28% noncontrolling interest in Tongmei. Pursuant to the investment agreements with the Investors, each Investor has the right to require AXT to redeem any or all Tongmei shares held by such Investor at the original purchase price paid by such Investor, without interest, in the event of a material adverse change or if Tongmei does not achieve its IPO on or before December 31, 2022. The aggregate redemption amount is approximately $49 million. This right is suspended when Tongmei submits its formal application for the IPO to the CSRC. However, if on December 31, 2022 the IPO application has been submitted and accepted by the CSRC or the stock exchange and such submission remains under review, then the date when such Investor is entitled to exercise such redemption right shall be deferred to a date when such submission is rejected by the CSRC or stock exchange, or the date when Tongmei withdraws its IPO application. Tongmei would be required to sell a minimum of 10% of its equity in the IPO.

On January 10, 2022, the Shanghai Stock Exchange accepted for review the formal application of Tongmei to list its shares in an IPO on the STAR Market. If the Shanghai Stock Exchange approves the formal application, then the Shanghai Stock Exchange will forward it to the CSRC for review. The Shanghai Stock Exchange provided comments to the formal application in March 2022 and Tongmei filed an amended application on April 14, 2022 to address the comments. The Shanghai Stock Exchange has not yet approved the formal application. The process of going public on the STAR Market includes several periods of review and is therefore a lengthy process. Tongmei does not expect to complete the IPO until the second half of 2022. The listing of Tongmei on the STAR Market will not change the status of AXT as a U.S. public company.

An additional step in the STAR Market IPO process involves certain entity reorganizations and alignment of assets under Tongmei. In this regard our two consolidated raw material companies, Nanjing JinMei Gallium Co., Ltd. and Beijing BoYu Semiconductor Vessel Craftwork Technology Co., Ltd. and its subsidiaries were assigned to Tongmei in December 2020. This will increase the number of customers and employees attributable to Tongmei as well as increase Tongmei’s consolidated revenue.

Risks Associated with Our Corporate Structure

Investing in these securities involves risks. We are subject to a number of unique legal and operational risks associated with our corporate structure, any of which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our common stock or cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless. Please carefully read the information beginning on page 9 of this prospectus and included in “Item 1A – Risk Factors” of our most recent report on Form 10-K or 10-Q that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you invest in our securities. In particular, the following risk factors address issues associated with our corporate structure:

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Although we are a Delaware corporation and are neither a PRC operating company nor do we conduct our operations in China through the use of VIEs, in the event we inadvertently concluded that we do not require any permissions or approvals from the CSRC or other PRC government authorities to complete this offering of securities or applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change, we may be required to obtain such permissions or approvals to complete this offering of securities.
The PRC government may intervene in or influence our PRC operations at any time and the rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice.
The PRC government may also exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our common stock.
Changes in China’s political, social, regulatory or economic environments may affect our financial performance.
Joint venture raw material companies in China bring certain risks.
Risks exist in utilizing our new gallium arsenide manufacturing sites efficiently.
The Chinese central government is increasingly aware of air pollution and other forms of environmental pollution and their reform efforts can impact our manufacturing, including intermittent mandatory shutdowns.
Shutdowns or underutilizing our manufacturing facilities may result in declines in our gross margins.
Enhanced trade tariffs, import restrictions, export restrictions, Chinese regulations or other trade barriers may materially harm our business.
If China places restrictions on freight and transportation routes and on ports of entry and departure this could result in shipping delays or increased costs for shipping.
Our international operations are exposed to potential adverse tax consequence in China.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from international sales, and our ability to sustain and increase our international sales involves significant risks.
The terms of the private equity raised in China as a first step toward an IPO on the STAR Market grant each investor a right of redemption if Tongmei fails to achieve its IPO.
We are subject to foreign exchange gains and losses that may materially impact our income statement.
Although the audit report incorporated by reference in this prospectus is prepared by an independent registered public accounting firm that is currently inspected fully by the PCAOB, there is no guarantee that future audit reports will be prepared by an independent registered public accounting firm that is completely inspected by the PCAOB.

Permissions or Approvals to Operate in the PRC

The businesses of our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures are subject to complex and rapidly evolving laws and regulations in the PRC, which can change quickly with little advance notice. The PRC government is a single party form of government with virtually unlimited authority and power to intervene in or influence commercial operations in China. In the past, we have experienced such intervention or influence by the PRC government and a change in the rules and regulations in China when we were instructed by the Beijing municipal government to relocate our manufacturing facility in Beijing and expect that such intervention or influence or change in the rules and regulations in China could occur in the future.

In the ordinary course of business, our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures require permits and licenses to operate in the PRC. Such permits and licenses include permits to use hazardous materials in manufacturing operations. From time to time, the PRC government issues new regulations, which may require additional actions on the part of our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures to comply. For example, on February 27, 2015, the China State Administration of Work Safety updated its list of hazardous substances. The previous list, which was published in 2002, did not restrict the materials that we use in our wafers. The new list added gallium arsenide.

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Permissions or Approvals to Conduct this Offering

We are neither a PRC operating company nor do we conduct our operations in China through the use of VIEs. All of our products are manufactured in the PRC by our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures. The Company believes that it does not require any permissions or approvals from the CSRC or other PRC government authorities to complete this offering of securities because it is a Delaware corporation with its principal corporate office in Fremont, California and the PRC laws and regulations that govern the listing of securities on a U.S. securities exchange apply to PRC companies. Tongmei requires CSRC approval to complete its IPO on the STAR Market, which will not change the status of AXT as a U.S. public company. Recent statements and regulatory actions by China’s government on the use of VIEs and data security or anti-monopoly concerns have not impacted our ability to conduct our business or continue to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

Our Corporate Structure

The following organization chart depicts the consolidated structure as of March 31, 2022:

Graphic

Dividends from within Our Corporate Structure

Occasionally, one of our PRC subsidiaries or PRC raw material joint ventures declares and pays a dividend. These dividends generally occur when the PRC joint venture declares a dividend for all of its shareholders. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, the aggregate dividends paid to us, directly or to an intermediate entity within our corporate structure, by our PRC subsidiaries and PRC raw material joint ventures were approximately $774,000 and $0, respectively. In June 2021, the Company received a $774,000 dividend from one of our equity investments, Xiaoyi XingAn Gallium Co., Ltd. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, the aggregate dividends paid to minority shareholders by our PRC subsidiaries and PRC raw material joint ventures were approximately $0 and $89,000, respectively. All of these distributions were paid to the PRC companies and the minority shareholders. For the three months ended March 31, 2022, no transfers, dividends, or distributions have been made to date between the Company and its PRC subsidiaries, or to investors, except for the settlement of amounts owed under our transfer pricing arrangements in the ordinary course of business.

We have no current intentions to distribute to our investors earnings under our corporate structure. We settle amounts owed under our transfer pricing arrangements in the ordinary course of business.

Dividends paid to the Company are subject to a 10% PRC withholding tax. The Company is required to obtain approval from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) to transfer funds in or out of the PRC. SAFE requires a valid agreement to approve the transfers, which are processed through a bank. There are no restrictions on the Company’s ability to transfer cash among its PRC subsidiaries. Other than PRC foreign exchange restrictions, the Company is not subject to any PRC restrictions and limitations on its ability to distribute earnings from its businesses, including its PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures, to the Company and its investors as well as the ability to settle amounts owed by the Company to its PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures.

The cash generated from one PRC subsidiary is not used to fund another PRC subsidiary’s operations. None of our PRC subsidiaries has ever faced difficulties or limitations on its ability to transfer cash between our subsidiaries. AXT has cash management policies that dictate the amount of such funding.

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Our Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

Our independent registered public accounting firm is BPM. The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act (the “HFCA Act”) requires that the PCAOB determine whether it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a non-U.S. jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report on its determinations that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in the PRC and Hong Kong because of positions taken by PRC authorities in those jurisdictions. BPM is neither headquartered in the PRC or Hong Kong nor is it subject to the determinations announced by the PCAOB.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in California in December 1986 and reincorporated in Delaware in May 1998. We changed our name from American Xtal Technology, Inc. to AXT, Inc. in July 2000. Our principal corporate office is located at 4281 Technology Drive, Fremont, California 94538, and our telephone number at this address is (510) 438-4700. We maintain a website at www.axt.com where general information about us is available. Our website, and the information contained therein, is not a part of this prospectus. The information that is contained on, or can be accessed through our website is not incorporated into this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address is an inactive textual reference only.

The Securities That May Be Offered

We may offer or sell common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights, purchase contracts and units in one or more offerings and in any combination. The aggregate offering price of the securities we sell pursuant to this prospectus will not exceed $60,000,000. Each time securities are offered with this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities being offered and the net proceeds we expect to receive from that sale.

The securities may be sold to or through underwriters, dealers or agents or directly to purchasers or as otherwise set forth in the section of this prospectus captioned “Plan of Distribution.” Each prospectus supplement will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers, agents or other entities involved in the sale of securities described in that prospectus supplement and any applicable fee, commission or discount arrangements with them.

Common Stock

We may offer shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, either alone or underlying other registered securities convertible into our common stock. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, subject to rights, if any, of preferred stockholders. We have not paid dividends in the past and have no current plans to pay dividends. Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote per share. The holders of common stock have no preemptive rights.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors has the authority, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series, and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Each series of preferred stock offered by us will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.

Depositary Shares

We may issue fractional shares of preferred stock that will be represented by depositary shares and depositary receipts.

Each series of depositary shares or depositary receipts offered by us will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.

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Debt Securities

We may offer secured or unsecured obligations in the form of one or more series of senior or subordinated debt. The senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities are together referred to in this prospectus as the “debt securities.” The subordinated debt securities generally will be entitled to payment only after payment of our senior debt. Senior debt generally includes all debt for money borrowed by us, except debt that is stated in the instrument governing the terms of that debt to be not senior to, or to have the same rank in right of payment as, or to be expressly junior to, the subordinated debt securities. We may issue debt securities that are convertible into shares of our common stock.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee to be identified in an accompanying prospectus supplement. We have summarized the general features of the debt securities to be governed by the indenture in this prospectus and the form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. We encourage you to read the indenture.

Warrants

We may offer warrants for the purchase of common stock. We may offer warrants independently or together with other securities.

Subscription Rights

We may offer subscription rights to purchase our common stock. These subscription rights may be offered independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the stockholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering.

Purchase Contracts

We may offer purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders or us to purchase from the other a specific or variable number of securities at a future date or dates.

Units

We may offer units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit.

Risk Factors

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. We are subject to a number of unique legal and operational risks associated with our corporate structure, any of which could cause our stock price to decline. Please carefully read the information in this section and included in “Item 1A – Risk Factors” of our most recent report on Form 10-K or 10-Q that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you invest in our securities. In particular, the following risk factors address issues associated with our corporate structure:

Although we are a Delaware corporation and are neither a PRC operating company nor do we conduct our operations in China through the use of VIEs, in the event we inadvertently concluded that we do not require any permissions or approvals from the CSRC or other PRC government authorities to complete this offering of securities or applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change, we may be required to obtain such permissions or approvals to complete this offering of securities.

We are a Delaware corporation and are neither a PRC operating company nor do we conduct our operations in China through the use of VIEs. All of our products are manufactured in the PRC by our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures. Accordingly, we do not require any permissions or approvals from the CSRC or other PRC government authorities to complete this offering of securities. In the event that we inadvertently concluded that such permission or approvals are not required or applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change and we are required to obtain such permissions or approvals in the future and we fail to obtain such permissions or approvals, then we may not be able to complete this offering of securities. We may also be pressured to delist our securities, which would force the holders to sell these securities and could result in a material adverse effect on the value of these securities. We may face sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC government authorities for failure to obtain such permissions or approvals. These sanctions may include fines and penalties on our operations in China, limitations on our operating privileges in China, delays in or restrictions on the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering

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into the PRC, restrictions on or prohibition of the payments or remittance of dividends by our subsidiaries in China, or other actions that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of our common stock.

The PRC government may intervene in or influence our PRC operations at any time and the rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice.

The businesses of our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures are subject to complex and rapidly evolving laws and regulations in the PRC, which can change quickly with little advance notice. The PRC government is a single party form of government with virtually unlimited authority and power to intervene in or influence commercial operations in China. In the past, we have experienced such intervention or influence by the PRC government and a change in the rules and regulations in China when we were instructed by the Beijing municipal government to relocate our manufacturing facility in Beijing and expect that such intervention or influence or change in the rules and regulations in China could occur in the future.

In the ordinary course of business, our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures require permits and licenses to operate in the PRC. Such permits and licenses include permits to use hazardous materials in manufacturing operations. From time to time, the PRC government issues new regulations, which may require additional actions on the part of our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures to comply. For example, on February 27, 2015, the China State Administration of Work Safety updated its list of hazardous substances. The previous list, which was published in 2002, did not restrict the materials that we use in our wafers. The new list added gallium arsenide. As a result of the newly published list, we were required to seek additional permits. Any such intervention or influence or change in the rules and regulations in China could result in a material change in our PRC operations and/or the value of our common stock.

The PRC government may also exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our common stock.

The PRC government may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our common stock. The PRC government may also seek to significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

Changes in China’s political, social, regulatory or economic environments may affect our financial performance.

Our financial performance may be affected by changes in China’s political, social, regulatory or economic environments. The role of the Chinese central and local governments in the Chinese economy is significant. The Beijing municipal government’s decision to move to the Tongzhou district, the original location of our manufacturing company, resulted in the city instructing virtually all existing manufacturing companies, including AXT, to relocate all or some of their manufacturing lines. We were instructed to move our gallium arsenide manufacturing line out of the area. Chinese policies toward hazardous materials, including arsenic, environmental controls, air pollution, economic liberalization, laws and policies affecting technology companies, foreign investment, currency exchange rates, taxation structure and other matters could change, resulting in greater restrictions on our ability to do business and operate our manufacturing facilities in China. We have observed a growing fluidity and tightening of regulations concerning hazardous materials, other environmental controls and air pollution. The Chinese government could revoke, terminate or suspend our operating licenses for reasons related to environmental control over the use of hazardous materials, air pollution, labor complaints, national security and similar reasons without compensation to us. Further, the central government encourages employees to report to the appropriate regulatory agencies possible safety or environmental violations, but there may not be actual violations. In days of severe air pollution the government has ordered manufacturing companies to stop all production. For example, in the first quarter of 2018, from February 27 to March 31, over 300 manufacturing companies, including us, were again intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days due to severe air pollution. Our shipments were delayed and our revenue for the quarter was negatively impacted. We expect that mandatory factory shutdowns will occur in the future. Any failure on our part to comply with governmental regulations could result in the loss of our ability to manufacture our products. Further, any imposition of surcharges or any increase in Chinese tax rates or reduction or elimination of Chinese tax benefits could hurt our financial results.

Joint venture raw material companies in China bring certain risks.

Since our consolidated subsidiaries and all of our joint venture raw material companies reside in China, their activities could subject us to a number of risks associated with conducting operations internationally, including:

unexpected changes in regulatory requirements that may limit our ability to manufacture, export the products of these companies or sell into particular jurisdictions or impose multiple conflicting tax laws and regulations;

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the imposition of tariffs, trade barriers and duties;
difficulties in managing geographically disparate operations;
difficulties in enforcing agreements through non-U.S. legal systems;
political and economic instability, civil unrest or war;
terrorist activities that impact international commerce;
difficulties in protecting our intellectual property rights, particularly in countries where the laws and practices do not protect proprietary rights to as great an extent as do the laws and practices of the United States;
new or changing laws and policies affecting economic liberalization, foreign investment, currency convertibility or exchange rates, taxation or employment;
new or changing PRC regulations and policies regarding data security and oversight by the Cyberspace Administration of China of our consolidated subsidiaries and all of our joint venture raw material companies; and
nationalization of foreign owned assets, including intellectual property.

Risks exist in utilizing our new gallium arsenide manufacturing sites efficiently.

The Chinese government has imposed, and may impose in the future, manufacturing restrictions and regulations that require us to move part of our manufacturing operations to a different location or temporarily cease or limit manufacturing. Such relocation, or other restrictions on manufacturing, could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and our financial condition.

The Beijing city government is moving its offices to the Tongzhou district where our original manufacturing facility is currently located. The city government is in the process of moving thousands of government employees into this area. To create room and upgrade the district, the city instructed virtually all existing manufacturing companies, including AXT, to relocate all or some of their manufacturing lines. We were instructed to move our gallium arsenide manufacturing line out of the area.

Although the relocation is completed and we are in volume production at the new sites, unforeseen manufacturing issues at the new sites could still occur. Problems could occur as we add capacity or comply with strict guidelines as customers perform their qualifications. All of this will require us to continue to diligently address the many details that arise at both of the new sites. A failure to properly accomplish this could result in disruption to our production and have a material adverse impact on our revenue, our results of operations and our financial condition. If we fail to meet the product qualification and volume requirements of a customer, we may lose sales to that customer. Our reputation may also be damaged. Any loss of sales could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, our results of operations and our financial condition.

Some of our key employees are relocating to our new manufacturing sites. Travel restrictions within China resulting from COVID-19 have impacted their relocation and hindered commuting. Certain employees may choose not to relocate. If we are unable to continue to employ those key employees in our original manufacturing facility, we may be required to terminate those employees and could incur severance costs. If the Chinese government does not assist us in this matter it could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and our financial condition. Further, a loss of key employees or our inability to hire qualified employees could disrupt our production, which could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and our financial condition.

The Chinese government has in the past imposed temporary restrictions on manufacturing facilities, such as the restrictions imposed on polluting factories for the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation event. These restrictions included a shutdown of the transportation of materials and power plants to reduce air pollution. To reduce air pollution in Beijing, the Chinese government has sometimes limited the construction of new, or expansion of existing, facilities by manufacturing companies in the Beijing area or required mandatory factory shutdowns. For example, in the first quarter of 2018, over 300 manufacturing companies, including AXT, were intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days from February 27 to March 31 due to severe air pollution. If the government applies similar restrictions to us or requires mandatory factory shutdowns in the future, then such restrictions or shutdowns could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and our financial condition. Our ability to supply current or new orders could be significantly impacted. Customers could then be required to purchase products from our competitors, causing our competitors to take market share from us.

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In addition, from time to time, the Chinese government issues new regulations, which may require additional actions on our part to comply. On February 27, 2015, the China State Administration of Work Safety updated its list of hazardous substances. The previous list, which was published in 2002, did not restrict the materials that we use in our wafers. The new list added gallium arsenide. As a result of the newly published list, we were required to seek additional permits.

The Chinese central government is increasingly aware of air pollution and other forms of environmental pollution and their reform efforts can impact our manufacturing, including intermittent mandatory shutdowns.

The Chinese central government is demonstrating strong leadership to improve air quality and reduce environmental pollution. These efforts have impacted manufacturing companies through mandatory shutdowns, increased inspections and regulatory reforms. In the fourth quarter of 2017, many manufacturing companies in the greater Beijing area, including AXT, were instructed by the local government to cease most manufacturing for several days until the air quality improved. In the first quarter of 2018, from February 27 to March 31 over 300 manufacturing companies, including AXT, were again intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days, or 30 percent of the remaining calendar days, due to severe air pollution. Our shipments were delayed and our revenue for the quarter was negatively impacted. We expect that mandatory factory shutdowns will occur in the future. If the frequency of such shutdowns increases, especially at the end of a quarter, or if the total number of days of shutdowns prevents us from producing enough wafers to ship, then these shutdowns will have a material adverse effect on our manufacturing output, revenue and factory utilization. Each of our raw material supply chain companies could also be impacted by environmental related orders from the central government.

Shutdowns or underutilizing our manufacturing facilities may result in declines in our gross margins.

An important factor in our success is the extent to which we are able to utilize the available capacity in our manufacturing facilities. A number of factors and circumstances may reduce utilization rates, including periods of industry overcapacity, low levels of customer orders, operating inefficiencies, mechanical failures and disruption of operations due to expansion, power interruptions, fire, flood, other natural disasters or calamities or government-ordered mandatory factory shutdowns, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Severe air pollution in Beijing can trigger mandatory factory shutdowns. For example, in the first quarter of 2018, over 300 manufacturing companies, including AXT, were intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days from February 27 to March 31, due to severe air pollution. Further, we have increased capacity by adding two new sites and this could reduce our utilization rate and increase our depreciation charges. Because many portions of our manufacturing costs are relatively fixed, high utilization rates are critical to our gross margins and operating results. If we fail to achieve acceptable manufacturing volumes or experience product shipment delays, our results of operations will be negatively affected. During periods of decreased demand, we have underutilized our manufacturing lines. If we are unable to improve utilization levels at our facilities during periods of decreased demand and correctly manage capacity, the fixed expense levels will have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, in the three months ended December 31, 2019, our revenue dropped to $18.4 million and our gross margin was only 21.0%.

If we are unable to utilize the available capacity in our manufacturing facilities, we may need to implement a restructuring plan, which could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, our results of operations and our financial condition. For example, in 2013, we concluded that incoming orders were insufficient and that we were significantly underutilizing our factory capacity. As a result, in February 2014, we announced a restructuring plan with respect to our wafer manufacturing company, Tongmei, in order to better align manufacturing capacity with demand. Under the restructuring plan, we recorded a charge of approximately $907,000 in the first quarter of 2014.

If we receive fewer customer orders than forecasted or if our customers delay or cancel orders, we may not be able to reduce our manufacturing costs in the short-term and our gross margins would be negatively affected. In addition, lead times required by our customers are shrinking, which reduces our ability to forecast orders and properly balance our capacity utilization.

Enhanced trade tariffs, import restrictions, export restrictions, Chinese regulations or other trade barriers may materially harm our business.

All of our wafer substrates are manufactured in China and in the years 2021 and 2020, approximately 10% of our revenue was generated by sales to customers in North America, primarily in the U.S. In September 2018, the Trump Administration announced a list of thousands of categories of goods that became subject to tariffs when imported into the United States. This pronouncement imposed tariffs on wafer substrates we imported into the United States. The initial tariff rate was 10% and subsequently was increased to 25%. In the years 2021, 2020 and 2019 we paid approximately $1.3 million, $1.3 million and $0.7 million, respectively, in tariffs. The future impact of tariffs and trade wars is uncertain. We may be required to raise prices, which may result in the loss of customers and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially harmed. Additionally, it is possible that our business could be adversely impacted by retaliatory

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trade measures taken by China or other countries in response to existing or future tariffs, which could cause us to raise prices or make changes to our operations, which could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The economic and political conditions between China and the United States, in our view, create an unstable business environment. The United States government has restricted access by certain Chinese technology companies to items produced domestically and abroad from U.S. technology and software, which may impact our ability to grow our revenue. Trade restrictions against China have resulted in a greater determination within China to be self-sufficient and produce more goods domestically. Government agencies in China may be encouraging and supporting the founding of new companies, the addition of new products in existing companies and more vertical integration within companies. These factors have resulted in lower revenue from sales of our wafer substrates in China. Further, the continued threats of tariffs and other trade restrictions could have a generally disruptive impact on the global economy and, therefore, negatively impact our sales.

In addition, we may incur increases in costs and other adverse business consequences, including loss of revenue or decreased gross margins, due to changes in tariffs, import or export restrictions, further trade barriers, or unexpected changes in regulatory requirements. For example, in July 2012, we received notice of retroactive value-added taxes (VATs) levied by the tax authorities in China, which applied for the period from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. We expensed the retroactive VATs of approximately $1.3 million in the quarter ended June 30, 2012, which resulted in a decrease in our gross margins. These VATs will continue to negatively impact our gross margins for the future quarters. Given the relatively fluid regulatory environment in China and the United States, there could be additional tax or other regulatory changes in the future. Any such changes could directly and materially adversely impact our financial results and general business condition.

If China places restrictions on freight and transportation routes and on ports of entry and departure this could result in shipping delays or increased costs for shipping.

In August 2015, there was an explosion at the Port of Tianjin, China. As a result of this incident the government placed restrictions on importing certain materials and on freight routes used to transport these materials. We experienced some modest disruption from these restrictions. If the government were to place additional restrictions on the transportation of materials, then our ability to transport our raw materials or products could be limited and result in manufacturing delays or bottlenecks at shipping ports, affecting our ability to deliver products to our customers. During periods of such restrictions, we may increase our stock of critical materials (such as arsenic, gallium and other items) for use during the period that these restrictions are likely to last, which will increase our use of cash and increase our inventory level. Any of these restrictions could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and our financial condition.

Our international operations are exposed to potential adverse tax consequence in China.

Our international operations create a risk of potential adverse tax consequences. Taxes on income in our China-based companies are dependent upon acceptance of our operational practices and intercompany transfer pricing by local tax authorities as being on an arm's length basis. Due to inconsistencies among taxing authorities in application of the arm's length standard, transfer pricing challenges by tax authorities could, if successful, materially increase our consolidated income tax expense. We are subject to tax audits in China and an audit could result in the assessment of additional income tax against us. This could have a material adverse effect on our operating results or cash flows in the period or periods for which that determination is made and could result in increases to our overall tax expense in subsequent periods. Various taxing agencies in China are increasingly focused on tax reform and other legislative action to increase tax revenue. In addition to risks regarding income tax we have in the past been retroactively assessed value added taxes (“VAT” or sales tax) and such VAT assessments could occur again in the future.

We derive a significant portion of our revenue from international sales, and our ability to sustain and increase our international sales involves significant risks.

Approximately 90% of our revenue is from international sales. We expect that sales to customers outside the United States, particularly sales to customers in Japan, Taiwan, Europe and China, will continue to represent a significant portion of our revenue. Therefore, our revenue growth depends significantly on the expansion of our international sales and operations.

All of our manufacturing facilities and most of our suppliers are also located outside the United States. Managing our overseas operations presents challenges, including periodic regional economic downturns, trade balance issues, threats of trade wars, varying business conditions and demands, political instability, variations in enforcement of intellectual property and contract rights in different jurisdictions, differences in the ability to develop relationships with suppliers and other local businesses, changes in U.S. and international laws and regulations, including U.S. export restrictions, fluctuations in interest and currency exchange rates, the ability to provide sufficient levels of technical support in different locations, cultural differences and perceptions of U.S. companies, shipping delays and terrorist acts or acts of war, natural disasters and epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19, among other risks. Many of these challenges are present in China, which represents a large

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potential market for semiconductor devices. Global uncertainties with respect to: (i) economic growth rates in various countries; (ii) sustainability of demand for electronic products; (iii) capital spending by semiconductor manufacturers; (iv) price weakness for certain semiconductor devices; (v) changing and tightening environmental regulations; (vi) political instability in regions where we have operations and (vii) trade wars may also affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our dependence on international sales involves a number of risks, including:

changes in tariffs, import restrictions, export restrictions, or other trade barriers;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements;
longer periods to collect accounts receivable;
foreign exchange rate fluctuations;
changes in export license requirements;
political and economic instability; and
unexpected changes in diplomatic and trade relationships.

Most of our sales are denominated in U.S. dollars, except for sales to our Chinese customers which are denominated in renminbi and our Japanese customers which are denominated in Japanese yen. We also have some small sales denominated in Euro. Increases in the value of the U.S. dollar could increase the price of our products in non-U.S. markets and make our products more expensive than competitors’ products in these markets.

The terms of the private equity raised in China as a first step toward an IPO on the STAR Market grant each investor a right of redemption if Tongmei fails to achieve its IPO.

Pursuant to the Capital Investment Agreements with the Investors, each Investor has the right to require AXT to redeem any or all Tongmei shares held by such Investor at the original purchase price paid by such Investor, without interest, in the event of a material adverse change or if Tongmei does not achieve its IPO on or before December 31, 2022. The aggregate redemption amount is approximately $49 million. This right is suspended when Tongmei submits its formal application to the CSRC. On January 10, 2022, the Shanghai Stock Exchange accepted for review the formal application of Tongmei to list its shares in an IPO on the STAR Market. If the Shanghai Stock Exchange approves the formal application, then the Shanghai Stock Exchange will forward it to the CSRC for review. However, if on December 31, 2022 the IPO application has been submitted and accepted by the CSRC or the stock exchange and such submission remains under review, then the date when such investor is entitled to exercise such redemption right shall be deferred to a date when such submission is rejected by the CSRC or stock exchange, or the date when Tongmei withdraws its IPO application. The process of going public on the STAR Market includes several periods of review and is therefore a lengthy process. Tongmei does not expect to complete the IPO until the second half of 2022. The listing of Tongmei on China’s STAR Market will not change the status of AXT as a U.S. public company. There can be no assurances that Tongmei will complete its IPO by December 31, 2022 or at all. In the event that investors exercise their redemption rights, we may be required to seek additional capital in order to redeem their Tongmei shares and there would be no assurances that such capital would be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Any redemptions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to foreign exchange gains and losses that materially impact our income statement.

We are subject to foreign exchange gains and losses that may materially impact our statement of operations. For example, in 2021 and 2020 we incurred losses of $434,000 and $411,000, respectively.

The functional currency of our companies in China is the Chinese renminbi, the local currency. We can incur foreign exchange gains or losses when we pay dollars to one of our China-based companies or a third-party supplier in China. Similarly, if a company in China pays renminbi into one of our bank accounts transacting in dollars the renminbi will be converted to dollars and we can incur a foreign exchange gain or loss. Hedging renminbi will be considered in the future but it is complicated by the number of companies involved, the diversity of transactions and restrictions imposed by the banking system in China.

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Sales to Japanese customers are denominated in Japanese yen. This subjects us to fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen and can result in foreign exchange gains and losses. This has been problematic in the past and, therefore, we instituted a foreign currency hedging program dealing with yen which has mitigated the problem.

Although the audit report incorporated by reference in this prospectus is prepared by an independent registered public accounting firm that is currently inspected fully by the PCAOB, there is no guarantee that future audit reports will be prepared by an independent registered public accounting firm that is completely inspected by the PCAOB.

Our independent registered public accounting firm, BPM, is registered with the PCAOB and is subject to regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Although we have operations in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese government authorities, our independent registered public accounting firm is currently inspected fully by the PCAOB.

Inspections of other independent registered public accounting firms conducted by the PCAOB outside China have at times identified deficiencies in those independent registered public accounting firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The lack of PCAOB inspections of audit work undertaken in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating independent registered public accounting firms’ audits and their quality control procedures. As a result, to the extent that any of our independent registered public accounting firm’s work papers are or become located in China, such work papers may not be subject to inspection by the PCAOB. As a result, investors would be deprived of such PCAOB inspections, which could result in limitations or restrictions to our access of the U.S. capital markets.

As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular PRC laws, in June 2019, a bipartisan group of lawmakers introduced bills in both houses of the U.S. Congress which, if passed, would require the SEC to maintain a list of issuers for which PCAOB is not able to inspect or investigate the audit work performed by a non-U.S. independent registered public accounting firm completely. The proposed Ensuring Quality Information and Transparency for Abroad-Based Listings on our Exchanges Act prescribes increased disclosure requirements for these issuers and, beginning in 2025, the delisting from U.S. national securities exchanges such as the Nasdaq Global Select Market of issuers included on the SEC’s list for three consecutive years. It is unclear if this proposed legislation will be enacted. Furthermore, there have been recent deliberations within the U.S. government regarding potentially limiting or restricting companies based in China from accessing U.S. capital markets. On May 20, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the HFCA Act, which includes requirements for the SEC to identify issuers whose audit work is performed by independent registered public accounting firms that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a restriction imposed by a non-U.S. authority in the independent registered public accounting firm’s local jurisdiction. The U.S. House of Representatives passed the HFCA Act on December 2, 2020, and the HFCA Act was signed into law on December 18, 2020. Additionally, in July 2020, the U.S. President’s Working Group on Financial Markets issued recommendations for actions that can be taken by the executive branch, the SEC, the PCAOB or other federal agencies and department with respect to Chinese companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges and their independent registered public accounting firms, in an effort to protect investors in the United States. In response, on November 23, 2020, the SEC issued guidance highlighting certain risks (and their implications to U.S. investors) associated with investments in issuers based in China and summarizing enhanced disclosures the SEC recommends issuers based in China make regarding such risks. On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. We will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies us as having a “non-inspection” year (as defined in the interim final rules) under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCA Act, including the listing and trading prohibition requirements described above. Under the HFCA Act, our securities may be prohibited from trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or other U.S. stock exchanges if our independent registered public accounting firm is not inspected by the PCAOB for three consecutive years, and this ultimately could result in our common stock being delisted. Furthermore, on June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which, if enacted, would amend the HFCA Act and require the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its independent registered public accounting firm is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three. On December 15, 2021, the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act was introduced to the U.S. House of Representatives. On September 22, 2021, the PCAOB adopted a final rule implementing the HFCA Act, which provides a framework for the PCAOB to use when determining, as contemplated under the HFCA Act, whether the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely independent registered public accounting firms located in a non-U.S. jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction and was approved by the SEC on November 5, 2021.

In March 2022, the SEC identified five companies under the HFCA Act that are subject to delisting. In March and April 2022, the SEC listed companies on its provisional list of issuers identified under the HFCA Act.

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While we believe that there has been dialogue among the CSRC, the SEC and the PCAOB regarding the inspection of PCAOB-independent registered public accounting firms in China, there can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with requirements imposed by U.S. regulators. Delisting of our common stock would force holders of our common stock to sell their shares. The market price of our common stock could be adversely affected as a result of anticipated negative impacts of these executive or legislative actions upon, as well as negative investor sentiment towards, companies with operations in China that are listed in the United States, regardless of whether these executive or legislative actions are implemented and regardless of our actual operating performance.

The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the section in the applicable prospectus supplement captioned “Risk Factors,” together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors” of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in “Part II—Item 1A—Risk Factors” in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed subsequent to such Form 10-K that are incorporated herein by reference, as may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations.

PRC Cybersecurity

We are neither a PRC operating company nor do we conduct our operations in China through the use of VIEs. All of our products are manufactured in the PRC by our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures. We do not have direct operations in the PRC. Accordingly, we do not believe we are subject to oversight by the Cyberspace Administration of China (the “CAC”) regarding data security. Except for routine personal information necessary to process payroll and other benefits and emergency contact information, our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures do not collect or maintain personal information. We believe our PRC subsidiaries and PRC joint ventures are in material compliance with the regulations or policies that have been issued by the CAC as of the date of this prospectus.

Forward-Looking Statements

This prospectus, each prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and each prospectus supplement contain certain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Statements regarding completing steps in connection with the proposed listing of shares of Tongmei on the STAR Market, being accepted to list shares of Tongmei on the STAR Market and the timing and completion of such listing of shares of Tongmei on the STAR Market are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “plan,” “potentially,” “likely,” and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. Those statements appear in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference, particularly in the sections captioned “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of our management that are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions. These risks, uncertainties and assumptions include, but are not limited to, the withdrawal, cancellations or requests for redemptions by private equity funds in China of their investments in Tongmei, the administrative challenges in satisfying the requirements of various government agencies in China in connection with the investments in Tongmei and the listing of shares of Tongmei on the STAR Market, continued open access to companies to list shares on the STAR Market, investor enthusiasm for new listings of shares on the STAR Market, geopolitical tensions between China and the United States, and other factors described in the section of this prospectus captioned “Risk Factors.” You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.

Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein after we distribute this prospectus, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.

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In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and although we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted a thorough inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus may contain market data that we obtain from industry sources. These sources do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the information. Although we believe that our industry sources are reliable, we do not independently verify the information. The market data may include projections that are based on a number of other projections. While we believe these assumptions to be reasonable and sound as of the date of this prospectus, actual results may differ from the projections.

Use of Proceeds

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds to us from the sale of our securities under this prospectus. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we currently expect to use the net proceeds that we receive from this offering for working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire, license or invest in complementary products, technologies or businesses. The expected use of net proceeds of this offering represents our current intentions based on our present plans and business conditions. We cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received upon the closing of this offering. Pending these uses, we plan to invest the net proceeds of this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

Description of Capital Stock

The description of our capital stock is incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 15, 2022.

Description of Debt Securities

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee to be identified in an accompanying prospectus supplement. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

General

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any

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pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);
the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;
any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;
the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;
the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;
the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;
the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;
any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;
the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;
the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;
the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;
the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;
if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;
the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;
any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;
any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

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any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;
any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and
whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, which we refer to as the depositary, or a nominee of the depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities

You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System

Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the depositary, and registered in the name of the depositary or a nominee of the depositary.

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly

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leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person, which we refer to as a successor person, unless:

we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than us) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and
immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us.

Events of Default

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);
default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;
default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee, or we and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;
certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us; and
any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof.

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in

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the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and
the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall send to each securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;
to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;
to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;
to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;
to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;
to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;
to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;
to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;
to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

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to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or
to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;
reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;
reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;
reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;
waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;
make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or
waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security.

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

Legal Defeasance

The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of

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execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.

Defeasance of Certain Covenants

The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and
any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series.

We refer to this as covenant defeasance. The conditions include:

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities;
such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under the indenture or any other agreement to which we are a party;
no Default or Event of Default with respect to the applicable series of debt securities shall have occurred or is continuing on the date of such deposit; and
delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders

None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or stockholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.

The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

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The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

Description of Depositary Shares

General

We may, at our option, elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, or depositary shares, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we do, we will issue to the public receipts, called depositary receipts, for depositary shares, each of which will represent a fraction, to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, of a share of a particular series of preferred stock. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fractional interest in a share of preferred stock represented by the depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share. Those rights include dividend, voting, redemption, conversion and liquidation rights.

The shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares will be deposited with a bank or trust company selected by us to act as depositary under a deposit agreement between us, the depositary and the holders of the depositary receipts. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares.

The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the depositary agreement. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.

The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus is not complete. You should refer to the form of the deposit agreement, our certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designation for the applicable series of preferred stock that are, or will be, filed with the SEC.

Dividends and Other Distributions

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions, if any, received in respect of the preferred stock underlying the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares owned by those holders on the relevant record date. The relevant record date for depositary shares will be the same date as the record date for the underlying preferred stock.

If there is a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property (including securities) received by it to the record holders of depositary shares, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution. If this occurs, the depositary may, with our approval, adopt another method for the distribution, including selling the property and distributing the net proceeds from the sale to the holders.

Liquidation Preference

If a series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares has a liquidation preference, in the event of the voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Withdrawal of Stock

Unless the related depositary shares have been previously called for redemption, upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the office of the depositary, the holder of the depositary shares will be entitled to delivery, at the office of the depositary to or upon his or her order, of the number of whole shares of the preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares

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in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares. In no event will the depositary deliver fractional shares of preferred stock upon surrender of depositary receipts. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn may not thereafter deposit those shares under the deposit agreement or receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.

Redemption of Depositary Shares

Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing shares of the preferred stock so redeemed, so long as we have paid in full to the depositary the redemption price of the preferred stock to be redeemed plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends on the preferred stock to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable on the preferred stock multiplied by the fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by one depositary share. If less than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata or by any other equitable method as may be determined by the depositary.

After the date fixed for redemption, depositary shares called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the monies payable upon redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of the depositary shares were entitled upon redemption upon surrender to the depositary of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares.

Voting the Preferred Stock

Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred stock are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts relating to that preferred stock. The record date for the depositary receipts relating to the preferred stock will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the number of shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares in accordance with those instructions, and we will agree to take all action that may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will not vote any shares of preferred stock except to the extent that it receives specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing that number of shares of preferred stock.

Charges of the Depositary

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and such other charges (including those in connection with the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the preferred stock and the transferring, splitting or grouping of depositary receipts) as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. If these charges have not been paid by the holders of depositary receipts, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipt.

Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares, other than fee changes, will not be effective unless the amendment has been approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding depositary shares. The deposit agreement may be terminated by the depositary or us only if:

all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed; or
there has been a final distribution of the preferred stock in connection with our dissolution and such distribution has been made to all the holders of depositary shares.

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Resignation and Removal of Depositary

The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may remove the depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal of the depositary will take effect upon our appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having the requisite combined capital and surplus as set forth in the applicable agreement.

Notices

The depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and other communications, including proxy solicitation materials received from us, that are delivered to the depositary and that we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any reports and communications we deliver to the depositary as the holder of preferred stock.

Limitation of Liability

Neither we nor the depositary will be liable if either is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations. Our obligations and those of the depositary will be limited to performance in good faith of our and its duties thereunder. We and the depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.

Description of Warrants

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the applicable prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;
the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;
whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;
whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;
any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;
the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;
the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;
if applicable, the designation and terms of the debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

26


if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock will be separately transferable;
the number of shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;
if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;
the antidilution provisions, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price, of the warrants, if any;
any redemption or call provisions; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

Description of Subscription Rights

We may issue subscription rights to purchase our common stock. These subscription rights may be offered independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the stockholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer, if any, will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;
the exercise price payable for our common stock upon the exercise of the subscription rights;
the number of subscription rights to be issued to each stockholder;
the number and terms of our common stock which may be purchased per each subscription right;
the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;
any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;
the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;
the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities or an over-allotment privilege to the extent the securities are fully subscribed; and
if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

The descriptions of the subscription rights in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement are summaries of the material provisions of the applicable subscription right agreements. These descriptions do not restate those subscription right agreements in their entirety and may not contain all the information that you may find useful. We urge you to read the applicable subscription right agreements because they, and not the summaries, define your rights as holders of the subscription rights. For more information, please review the forms of the relevant subscription right agreements, which will be filed with the SEC promptly after the offering of subscription rights and will be available as described in the section of this prospectus captioned “Where You Can Find More Information.”

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Description of Purchase Contracts

The following description summarizes the general features of the purchase contracts that we may offer under this prospectus. Although the features we have summarized below will generally apply to any future purchase contracts we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any purchase contracts that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The specific terms of any purchase contracts may differ from the description provided below as a result of negotiations with third parties in connection with the issuance of those purchase contracts, as well as for other reasons. Because the terms of any purchase contracts we offer under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, you should rely solely on information in the applicable prospectus supplement if that summary is different from the summary in this prospectus.

We will incorporate by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the form of any purchase contract that we may offer under this prospectus before the sale of the related purchase contract. We urge you to read any applicable prospectus supplement related to specific purchase contracts being offered, as well as the complete instruments that contain the terms of the securities that are subject to those purchase contracts. Certain of those instruments, or forms of those instruments, have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplements to those instruments or forms may be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part from reports we file with the SEC.

We may issue purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from us, and for us to sell to holders, a specific or variable number of our securities at a future date or dates. Alternatively, the purchase contracts may obligate us to purchase from holders, and obligate holders to sell to us, a specific or varying number of our securities.

If we offer any purchase contracts, certain terms of that series of purchase contracts will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following:

the price of the securities or other property subject to the purchase contracts (which may be determined by reference to a specific formula described in the purchase contracts);
whether the purchase contracts are issued separately, or as a part of units each consisting of a purchase contract and one or more of our other securities, including U.S. Treasury securities, securing the holder’s obligations under the purchase contract;
any requirement for us to make periodic payments to holders or vice versa, and whether the payments are unsecured or pre-funded;
any provisions relating to any security provided for the purchase contracts;
whether the purchase contracts obligate the holder or us to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract, and the nature and amount of each of those securities, or the method of determining those amounts;
whether the purchase contracts are to be prepaid or not;
whether the purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract;
any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the purchase contracts;
a discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the purchase contracts;
whether the purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form; and
any other terms of the purchase contracts and any securities subject to such purchase contracts.

Description of Units

We may issue units comprising two or more securities described in this prospectus in any combination. For example, we might issue units consisting of a combination of debt securities and warrants to purchase common stock. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the units that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. The

28


particular terms of the units and the extent, if any, to which the general terms and provisions may apply to the units so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit also is the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. Units will be issued pursuant to the terms of a unit agreement, which may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time or at any time before a specified date. A copy of the forms of the unit agreement and the unit certificate relating to any particular issue of units will be filed with the SEC each time we issue units, and you should read those documents for provisions that may be important to you. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the forms of the unit agreement and the related unit certificate, see the section of this prospectus captioned “Where You Can Find More Information.”

The prospectus supplement relating to any particular issuance of units will describe the terms of those units, including, to the extent applicable, the following:

the designation and terms of the units and the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;
any provision for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and
whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.

Plan of Distribution

We may sell securities:

through underwriters;
through dealers;
through agents;
directly to purchasers; or
through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing securityholders.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price or prices that may be changed from time to time;
at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

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The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

the name of the agent or any underwriters;
the public offering or purchase price;
if applicable, the names of any selling securityholders;
any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;
all other items constituting underwriting compensation;
any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and
any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing securityholders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements that they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and
if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery.

The underwriters and other persons acting as agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may over-allot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover over-allotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the

30


underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the third business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

Legal Matters

The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, Palo Alto, California. Additional legal matters may be passed on for us, or any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Experts

The consolidated financial statements of AXT, Inc. as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021 incorporated in this registration statement on Form S-3 by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BPM, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

Where You Can Find More Information

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.axt.com. Information accessible on or through our website is not a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information on us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities that we are offering. Forms of any indenture or other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part or under cover of a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated in this prospectus by reference. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should read the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K and, except as may be noted in any such Form 8-K, exhibits filed on such form that are

31


related to such information), until the offering of the securities under the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is terminated or completed:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 15, 2022;
the portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A (other than information furnished rather than filed) that are incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on April 8, 2022;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 3, 2022 and January 10, 2022; and
The description of our common stock contained in the Registration Statement on Form 8-A relating thereto, filed with the SEC on April 24, 1998, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

AXT, Inc.

4281 Technology Drive

Fremont, California 94538

Attn: Investor Relations

(510) 438-4700

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth estimated expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered:

     

Amount
to be Paid

SEC registration fee

$

6,546

Stock exchange listing fee

*

Printing and engraving expenses

*

Accounting fees and expenses

*

Legal fees and expenses

*

Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses

*

Trustee’s fees and expenses

*

Miscellaneous expenses

*

Total

$

*

*

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Our restated certificate of incorporation (Exhibit 3.1 hereto and any amendments thereto) provides for the indemnification of directors to the fullest extent permissible under Delaware General Corporation Law. Article VIII of our amended and restated bylaws (Exhibit 3.5 hereto) provides indemnification of our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers, and we maintain insurance policies insuring our directors and officers against certain liabilities that they may incur in their capacity as officers and directors of our company.

See also the undertakings set out in response to Item 17 herein.

The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in the registrant’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and the indemnification agreements that the registrant has entered into with its directors and executive officers may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against the registrant’s directors and executive officers for breach of their fiduciary duties. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against the registrant’s directors and executive officers, even though an action, if successful, might benefit the registrant and other stockholders. Further, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent that the registrant pays the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and executive officers as required by these indemnification provisions. At present, the registrant is not aware of any pending litigation or proceeding involving any person who is or was one of the registrant’s directors or officers, or is or was one of the registrant’s directors or officers serving at its request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, for which indemnification is sought, and we are not aware of any threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification.

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Item 16.

Exhibits

Incorporation by Reference

Exhibit Number

Exhibit Description

Form

Exhibit Number

Filing Date

1.1**

Form of Underwriting Agreement

3.1

Restated Certificate of Incorporation

10-K

3.1

March 31, 1999

3.2

Certificate of Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation

10-Q

3.1

August 14, 2000

3.3

Certificate of Amendment to the Restated Certificate of Incorporation

10-Q

3.4

August 5, 2004

3.4

Certificate of Designations, Preferences and Rights of Series A Preferred Stock

8-K

3.1

June 14, 1999

3.5

Second Amended and Restated Bylaws

8-K

3.4

May 30, 2001

3.6

Amended and Restated Section 5.1 of Article V of the Second Amended and Restated Bylaws of AXT, Inc.

8-K

99.2

August 1, 2007

3.7

Certificate of Amendment to Bylaws

8-K

3.1

October 26, 2010

4.1**

Form of Preferred Stock Certificate

4.2*

Form of Indenture

S-3

4.2

July 27, 2021

4.3**

Form of Debt Security

4.4**

Form of Depositary Agreement

4.5**

Form of Warrant Agreement

4.6**

Form of Subscription Agreement

4.7**

Form of Purchase Contract Agreement

4.8**

Form of Unit Agreement

4.9**

Form of Unit

5.1*

Opinion of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation

S-3

5.1

July 27, 2021

23.1

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

23.2*

Consent of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation (included in the opinion filed as Exhibit 5.1 to the original filing of this registration statement)

24.1*

Power of Attorney (included on the signature page to the original filing of this registration statement)

S-3

24.1

July 27, 2021

25.1***

Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939

107.1*

Filing Fee Tables

S-3

107.1

February 4, 2022

*

Previously filed.

**

To be filed, if applicable, by amendment or incorporated by reference pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K.

*** To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

Item 17.

Undertakings

(a)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1)to file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i)to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

(ii)to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was

34


registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the Commission, pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii)to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2)that, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3)to remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4)that, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

(i)each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii)each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5)that, for the purpose of determining liability of a registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of such undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i)any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii)any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii)the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv)any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6)that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration

35


statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7)to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(b)Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

36


SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Fremont, State of California, on April 14, 2022.

AXT, Inc.

By:/s/ Morris S. Young​ ​

Morris S. Young

Chief Executive Officer

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:

Signature

Title

Date

​ ​/s/ Morris. S. Young​ ​

Morris. S. Young

Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors
(Principal Executive Officer)

April 14, 2022

​ ​/s/ Gary L. Fischer​ ​

Gary L. Fischer

Chief Financial Officer and Corporate Secretary
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

April 14, 2022

​ ​*​ ​
Jesse Chen

Lead Independent Director

April 14, 2022

​ ​*​ ​
David C. Chang

Director

April 14, 2022

​ ​*​ ​
Christine Russell

Director

April 14, 2022

* By:/s/ Gary L. Fischer​ ​​ ​

Gary L. Fischer

Attorney-in-fact

37


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