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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 20-F

(Mark One)

          REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

          ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

OR

           TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

           SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

For the transition period from to

Commission file number: 001-35147

Renren Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

2828 N. Central Avenue Fl 7,

Phoenix, Arizona, 85004 USA

(Address of principal executive offices)

Chris Palmer, Chief Financial Officer

Telephone: +1-833-258-7482

Email: ir@renren-inc.com

2828 N. Central Avenue Fl 7,

Phoenix, Arizona, 85004 USA

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

    

Trading symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange
on which registered

American depositary shares, each representing 45 Class A ordinary shares

 

RENN

 

The New York Stock Exchange

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.001 per share*

 

 

 

The New York Stock Exchange

*Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The New York Stock Exchange of American depositary shares (“ADSs”).

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the Issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of December 31, 2021, 815,936,577 Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.001 per share (excluding the Class A ordinary shares issued to the depositary bank for bulk issuance of ADSs reserved for future issuances upon the exercise or vesting of awards granted under our share incentive plans) and 305,388,450 Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.001 per share, were issued and outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes  No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes  No

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer  

Accelerated filer  

Non-accelerated filer  

Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Yes  No

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP  

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board  

Other  

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17            Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes  No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY

PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Yes  No  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PAGE

 

 

INTRODUCTION

1

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

2

 

 

PART I

3

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

3

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

3

Item 3. Key Information

3

Item 4. Information on the Company

35

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

49

Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

49

Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees

65

Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

76

Item 8. Financial Information

77

Item 9. The Offer and Listing

79

Item 10. Additional Information

79

Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

88

Item 12. Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

89

PART II

90

Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

90

Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

90

Item 15. Controls and Procedures

90

Item 16. Reserved

92

Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert

92

Item 16B. Code of Ethics

92

Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

93

Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

93

Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

93

Item 16F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

93

Item 16G. Corporate Governance

94

Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure

94

Item 16I. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections.

95

PART III

95

Item 17. Financial Statements

95

Item 18. Financial Statements

95

Item 19. Exhibits

95

SIGNATURES

100

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

F-1

i

INTRODUCTION

In this annual report, except where the context otherwise requires:

“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each of which represents 45 Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.001 per share. On February 6, 2017, we changed the number of ordinary shares represented by each ADS from 3 to 15. On January 9, 2020, we further changed the number of ordinary shares represented by each ADS from 15 to 45. Except as otherwise indicated, all ADS and per ADS data in this annual report give retroactive effect to the change in the number of ordinary shares represented by each ADS from 15 to 45 that became effective on January 9, 2020.
“Chime” refers to Chime Technologies, Inc., our majority-owned subsidiary incorporated in the State of Delaware.
“PRC” or “China” refers to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for purposes of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
“Qianxiang Shiji” refers to Qianxiang Shiji Technology Development (Beijing) Co., Ltd., our wholly-owned subsidiary incorporated in the People’s Republic of China.
“Qianxiang Tiancheng” or “VIE” refers to Beijing Qianxiang Tiancheng Technology Development Co., Ltd., a company incorporated in the People’s Republic of China.
“SaaS” refers to software as a service.
“Shares” or “ordinary shares” refer, collectively, to our Class A and Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.001 per share. Except as otherwise indicated, all share and per share data in this annual report give retroactive effect to the ten-for-one share split that became effective on March 25, 2011.
“Trucker Path” refers to Trucker Path, Inc., our majority-owned subsidiary incorporated in the State of Delaware.
“We,” “us,” “our company,” “the Company,” “our” or “Renren” refer, collectively, to Renren Inc. and its subsidiaries and, in the context of describing our consolidated financial information, also include the VIE and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires.

Our financial statements are expressed in U.S. dollars, which is our reporting currency. Certain Renminbi figures in this annual report are translated into U.S. dollars solely for the reader’s convenience. Unless otherwise noted, all convenience translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars in this annual report were made at a rate of RMB6.3726 to US$1.00, the exchange rate in effect as of December 30, 2021 as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, at the rate stated above, or at all.

1

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. These forward-looking statements are made under the “safe-harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

our goals and strategies;
our future business development, financial condition, and results of operations;
expected changes in our revenues and certain cost and expense items;
our expectations regarding our SaaS businesses and our other operations in the United States and China;
our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our services;
changes in technology affecting our business, and our company’s responses to these changes;
our expectations regarding our relationships with distributors, customers, suppliers, strategic partners, and other stakeholders;
competition in our industry; and
relevant government policies and regulations relating to our industry.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, and business strategy. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect, and our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. You should read thoroughly this annual report and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements with these cautionary statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

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PART I

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3. Key Information

A. [Reserved]

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D. Risk Factors

Below please find a summary of the principal risks we face, organized under relevant headings.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have a history of losses from operations and negative cash flows from operating activities, which may continue in the future.
We are dependent upon customer renewals, the addition of new customers, increased revenue from existing customers, and the continued growth of the market for our SaaS businesses.
Our subscription renewal rates may decrease, and any decrease could harm our future revenue and operating results.
We face significant competition from both established and new companies offering SaaS products other related applications similar to those we offer, as well as internally developed software, which may harm our ability to add new customers, retain existing customers, and grow our business.
We have experienced rapid growth in headcount and organizational change in recent periods and expect continued future growth. If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service, or address competitive challenges adequately.
Failure to effectively develop and expand our marketing, sales, customer service, and content management capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our products and services.
If we fail to further enhance our brand and maintain our existing strong brand awareness, our ability to expand our customer base will be impaired and our financial condition may suffer.
If we fail to adapt and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, and changing customer needs or requirements, our SaaS products may become less competitive.
If we fail to offer high-quality customer support, our business and reputation may suffer.

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Our ability to introduce new services and features is dependent on adequate research and development resources. If we do not adequately fund our research and development efforts, we may not be able to compete effectively and our business and operating results may be harmed.
We rely on sophisticated information systems and third-party cloud infrastructure to run our business. The failure of these systems, any service disruptions or outages, or the inability to enhance our capabilities, could have a material adverse effect on our business, sales, and results of operations.
Cyber-attacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or other unauthorized access to our or our business partners’ computer systems could result in misuse of confidential information and misappropriation of funds of our customers, subject us to liabilities, cause reputational harm, and adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Security concerns about online payment systems we use could damage our reputation and deter current and potential users from using our services.
Interruptions or delays in service from our third-party data center providers could impair our ability to deliver our SaaS services to our customers, resulting in customer dissatisfaction, damage to our reputation, loss of customers, limited growth, and reduction in revenue.
We are dependent on the continued availability of third-party online marketing and data hosting and transmission services.
If we do not or cannot maintain the compatibility of our SaaS services with third-party applications that our customers use in their businesses, our revenue will decline.
We rely on data provided by third parties, the loss of which could limit the functionality of our SaaS services and disrupt our business.
Privacy and data security concerns and end users’ acceptance of internet behavior tracking may limit the applicability, use and adoption of our SaaS services.
Our research and development operations depend on the performance of the internet infrastructure and fixed telecommunications networks in China.
We have granted, and may continue to grant, share options, restricted share units, and other share-based awards under our equity incentive plans, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.
Our ownership interest in our SaaS operating businesses Chime and Trucker Path may be diluted if the respective companies issue new shares to third parties to raise capital or pursuant to their equity incentive plans.
Our investment interest in Kaixin may continue to be materially adversely affected by Kaixin’s financial and operating performance.
Our business may be materially adversely affected by COVID-19 or other epidemics that impact the global economy or the economies of the markets we serve and operate in.
We may not be able to prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.

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We have been and may continue to be subject to intellectual property infringement claims or other allegations by third parties for services we provide or for information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our websites or distributed to our users, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

Our dual-class voting structure allows our two largest shareholders to significantly influence our actions over important corporate matters, will limit your ability to influence corporate matters, and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.
If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for our operations in China do not comply with PRC governmental restrictions on foreign investment, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.
We have contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng for some of our China operations, which may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership. Any failure by Qianxiang Tiancheng or its shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct business and negatively affect our financial condition.

Risks Related to Our ADSs

If the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditors as required under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, the SEC will prohibit the trading of our ADSs. A trading prohibition for our ADSs, or the threat of a trading prohibition, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditors deprives our investors of the benefits of such inspections.
The market price for our ADSs has fluctuated and may continue to be volatile.
We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.
As a foreign private issuer incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we comply fully with the NYSE corporate governance listing standards.
We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.
We may be a passive foreign investment company, or a PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequence to U.S. Holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have a history of losses from operations and negative cash flows from operating activities, which may continue in the future.

We have made significant changes to our business scope in recent years. The portfolio of services we offer has evolved from social networking services, or SNS, historically the core of our company’s business, to a SaaS business. In the year ended December 31, 2021, 98.9% of our revenues were derived from our SaaS business, which generates revenue from subscription and advertising services. We may invest in other new initiatives in the future that may require significant investment and organizational effort. Over our history, we have disposed of existing businesses to focus on new business opportunities.

We have incurred net losses and negative cash flows from operating activities in the past and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability or positive cash flow in the future. Our total revenues increased from US$15.1 million in 2019 to US$18.1

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million in 2020 and increased to US$32.2 million in 2021, and loss from continuing operations were US$38.4 million, US$16.8 million and US$103.4 million in 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. We had negative cash flows from continuing operating activities of US$28.4 million, US$11.7 million and US$19.0 million in 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively.

We expect to continue as a going concern. As of December 31, 2021, we had net current assets (current assets less current liabilities) of US$41.2 million, and an accumulated deficit of US$620.4 million. Our ability to continue as a going concern depends on our ability to generate cash flows from operations, and to arrange adequate financing arrangements. In January 2021, we received US$68.0 million from a related party as payment of receivables due, which enables us to have sufficient cash reserve for our operating needs for at least the next twelve months from the date of this annual report. However, if negative cash flow from operating activities persists in the long run, cash resources may become insufficient to satisfy our on-going cash requirements.

Expansion into new businesses may present operating and marketing challenges different from those we currently encounter, and we cannot assure that our new business initiatives will be successful enough to justify the time, effort and resources that we devote to them.

We are dependent upon customer renewals, the addition of new customers, increased revenue from existing customers, and the continued growth of the market for our SaaS businesses.

We derive, and expect to continue to derive, a substantial portion of our revenue from the sale of subscriptions to our SaaS services, Chime and Trucker Path. The market for our SaaS applications is rapidly evolving, and competitive dynamics may cause pricing levels to change as the market matures and as existing and new market participants introduce new types of applications and different approaches to enable businesses to address their respective needs. As a result, we may be forced to reduce the prices we charge for our products and may be unable to renew existing customer subscriptions or enter into new customer subscriptions at the same prices and upon the same terms that we have historically. In addition, our growth strategy involves the offering of freemium versions of our products intended to provide customers an opportunity to use our product and expand their use of our SaaS services with paid offerings, cross-sell our products to existing marketing product customers, and upsell new value-added services and features through touchless or low touch in product purchases. If our cross-selling efforts are unsuccessful or if our existing customers do not expand their use of our SaaS services or adopt additional offerings and features, our operating results may suffer.

Our subscription renewal rates may decrease, and any decrease could harm our future revenue and operating results.

Our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our SaaS services after the expiration of their subscription periods, substantially all of which are one year or less and often month-to-month. In addition, our customers may seek to renew for lower subscription tiers, for fewer seats, or for shorter contract lengths. Also, customers may choose not to renew their subscriptions for a variety of reasons. Our renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including limited customer resources, pricing changes, the prices of services offered by our competitors, adoption and utilization of our SaaS services and add-on applications by our customers, adoption of our new products, customer satisfaction with our SaaS services, mergers and acquisitions affecting our customer base, reductions in our customers’ spending levels or declines in customer activity as a result of economic downturns or uncertainty in financial markets. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions for our SaaS services or decrease the amount they spend with us, our revenue will decline and our business will suffer. In addition, a subscription model creates certain risks related to the timing of revenue recognition and potential reductions in cash flows. A portion of the subscription-based revenue we report each period results from the recognition of deferred revenue relating to subscription agreements entered into during previous periods. A decline in new or renewed subscriptions in any period may not be immediately reflected in our reported financial results for that period, but may result in a decline in our revenue in future periods. If we were to experience significant downturns in subscription sales and renewal rates, our reported financial results might not reflect such downturns until future periods.

We face significant competition from both established and new companies offering SaaS products and other related applications similar to those we offer, as well as internally developed software, which may harm our ability to add new customers, retain existing customers and grow our business.

The SaaS software market is evolving, highly competitive and significantly fragmented. With the introduction of new technologies and the potential entry of new competitors into the market, we expect competition to persist and intensify in the future, which could harm our ability to increase sales, maintain or increase renewals and maintain our prices.

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We face intense competition from other software companies that develop productivity software for the real estate professional and long-haul trucking industry. Competition could significantly impede our ability to sell subscriptions to our SaaS products on terms favorable to us. Our current and potential competitors may develop and market new technologies that render our existing or future products less competitive, or obsolete. In addition, if these competitors develop products with similar or superior functionality to our SaaS services, we may need to decrease the prices or accept less favorable terms for our SaaS services subscriptions in order to remain competitive. If we are unable to maintain our pricing due to competitive pressures, our margins will be reduced and our operating results will be negatively affected.

In addition, instead of using our SaaS services, some prospective customers may elect to combine disparate point applications that provide functionality similar to our products. We expect that new competitors, such as enterprise software vendors or Transportation Management System providers that have traditionally focused on enterprise resource planning and enterprise software solutions, will develop and introduce applications serving customer-facing functions offered by our products and services. This development could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. In addition, competitors could acquire or develop applications that compete with our software offerings.

Our current and potential competitors may have significantly more financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we have, be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their products and services, may have more extensive customer bases and broader customer relationships than we have, and may have longer operating histories and greater name recognition than we have. As a result, these competitors may have the ability to respond faster to new technologies and undertake more extensive marketing campaigns for their products. In a few cases, these vendors may also be able to offer marketing, sales, customer service, and other services at little or no additional cost by bundling it with their existing suite of applications. To the extent any of our competitors has existing relationships with potential customers, those customers may be unwilling to purchase our SaaS services because of their existing relationships with our competitor. If we are unable to compete with such companies, the demand for our software and services could substantially decline.

In addition, if one or more of our competitors were to merge or partner with another of our competitors, our ability to compete effectively could be adversely affected. Our competitors may also establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with our current or future strategic distribution and technology partners or other parties with whom we have relationships, thereby limiting our ability to promote and deliver our SaaS services.

We have experienced rapid growth in headcount and organizational change in recent periods and expect continued future growth. If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service, or address competitive challenges adequately.

Our headcount and operations have grown substantially. For example, we had 409 full-time employees as of December 31, 2021, as compared with 324 as of December 31, 2020. We also plan to open an additional office in Guadalajara, Mexico in the future. This growth has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on our management, administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. We anticipate further growth will be required to address increases in our product offerings and continued expansion. Our success will depend in part upon our ability to recruit, hire, train, manage, and integrate a significant number of qualified managers, technical personnel, and employees in specialized roles within our company, including in technology, and sales and marketing. Furthermore, it may become more difficult to preserve our corporate culture as we grow. Any failure to preserve our culture could harm our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel, innovate and operate effectively, and execute on our business strategy. If we experience any of these effects in connection with future growth, if our new employees perform poorly, or if we are unsuccessful in recruiting, hiring, training, managing, and integrating these new employees, or retaining these or our existing employees, it could materially impair our ability to attract new customers, retain existing customers and expand their use of our SaaS services, all of which would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In addition, to manage the expected continued growth of our headcount, operations, and geographic expansion, we will need to continue to improve our information technology infrastructure, operational, financial and management systems and procedures. Our anticipated additional headcount and related investments will increase our daily operating costs, which will make it more difficult for us to address any future revenue shortfalls by reducing expenses in the short term. If we fail to successfully manage our growth, we will be unable to successfully execute our business plan, which could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.

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Failure to effectively develop and expand our marketing, sales, customer service, and content management capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our products and services.

To increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our SaaS services, we will need to expand our marketing, sales, customer service, and advertising operations including our sales force and third-party channel partners. We will continue to dedicate significant resources to inbound sales and marketing programs. The effectiveness of our inbound sales and marketing and third-party channel partners has varied over time, may vary in the future, and depends on our ability to maintain and improve our products, customer service, and reputation. All of these efforts will require us to invest significant financial and other resources. Our business will be seriously harmed if our efforts do not generate a correspondingly significant increase in revenue. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force if we are unable to hire, develop and retain talented sales personnel, if our new sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective.

If we fail to further enhance our brand and maintain our existing strong brand awareness, our ability to expand our customer base will be impaired and our financial condition may suffer.

We believe that our development of our SaaS brands is critical to achieving widespread awareness of our existing and future SaaS services, and, as a result, is important to attracting new customers and maintaining existing customers. Successful promotion and maintenance of our brands will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and on our ability to provide a reliable and useful customer experience at competitive prices. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, our business could suffer.

If we fail to adapt and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, and changing customer needs or requirements, our SaaS products may become less competitive.

Our future success depends on our ability to adapt and innovate our SaaS services. To attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers, we need to continue to enhance and improve our offerings to meet customer needs at prices that our customers are willing to pay. Such efforts will require adding new functionality and responding to technological advancements, which will increase our research and development costs. If we are unable to develop new applications and features that address our customers’ needs, or to enhance and improve our SaaS services in a timely manner, we may not be able to maintain or increase market acceptance of our products. Our ability to grow is also subject to the risk of future disruptive technologies. Access to and use of our SaaS services is provided via the cloud, which, itself, was disruptive to the previous enterprise software model. If new technologies emerge that are able to solve problems more effectively or offer services similar to ours at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely, such technologies could adversely affect our ability to compete.

If we fail to offer high-quality customer support, our business and reputation may suffer.

High-quality education, training and customer support are important for the successful marketing, sale and use of our SaaS services and for the renewal of existing customers. Providing this education, training and support requires that our customer support personnel have specific domain knowledge and expertise in our products and services, making it more difficult for us to hire qualified personnel and to scale up our support operations. The importance of high-quality customer support will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers including large multi-seat enterprise accounts. If we do not help our customers use our products, perceive value in their use, and provide effective ongoing support, our ability to sell additional functionality and services to, or to retain, existing customers may suffer and our reputation with existing or potential customers may be harmed.

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Our ability to introduce new services and features is dependent on adequate research and development resources. If we do not adequately fund our research and development efforts, we may not be able to compete effectively and our business and operating results may be harmed.

To remain competitive, we must continue to develop new offerings, applications, features and enhancements to our SaaS services. Maintaining adequate research and development personnel and resources to meet the demands of the market is essential. If we are unable to develop our SaaS services internally due to certain constraints, such as high employee turnover, lack of management ability, or a lack of other research and development resources, we may miss market opportunities. Most of our research and development personnel and resources are based outside the United States, particularly in China. If we fail to maintain or expand research and development personnel and resources in a manner that satisfies customer preferences in a timely and cost-effective manner, we may fail to retain our existing customers or increase demand for our SaaS products. Further, many of our competitors expend a considerably greater amount of funds on their research and development programs, and those that do not may be acquired by larger companies that would allocate greater resources to our competitors’ research and development programs. Our failure to maintain adequate research and development resources or to compete effectively with the research and development programs of our competitors could materially adversely affect our business.

We rely on sophisticated information systems and third-party cloud infrastructure to run our business. The failure of these systems, any service disruptions or outages, or the inability to enhance our capabilities, could have a material adverse effect on our business, sales, and results of operations.

Our business and reputation depend upon the performance, reliability, availability, integrity and efficient operation of our information systems and third-party cloud infrastructure we contract with to host and make our SaaS products available to subscribers. There is no assurance that we or our service providers will be able to prevent damage or interruption to the infrastructure and computer systems on which our SaaS products reside, from natural disasters, power or telecommunications failures, software errors, bugs or defects, configuration errors, computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks, security breaches, hacking attempts, sanctions, de-platforming boycotts or criminal acts at all times. In the event of a service disruption or outage in our computer systems, our computer systems may not be able to store, retrieve, process and manage data. For example, we may experience temporary service disruptions or data losses during data migrations between old and new systems or system upgrades. We may not be able to recover all data and services in the event of a service disruption or outage.

Any interruption or delays in our services, whether due to third-party error or our own error, natural disasters or security breaches, whether accidental or willful, could harm our relationships with our customers, users of our SaaS services and our reputation, subject us to liabilities, and cause customers and users of our SaaS services to abandon our SaaS services, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Cyber-attacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or other unauthorized access to our or our business partners’ computer systems could result in misuse of confidential information and misappropriation of funds of our customers, subject us to liabilities, cause reputational harm and adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.

Our SaaS services collect, store and process certain personal information and other sensitive data from our customers. The massive data that we have processed and stored makes us and our server hosting service providers the targets of, and potentially vulnerable to, cyber-attacks, computer viruses, hackers, denial-of-service attacks, physical or electronic break-ins or other unauthorized access. While we have taken steps to protect such confidential information, our security measures may be breached. Because techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access into systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Any accidental or willful security breaches or other unauthorized access to our or our server hosting service providers’ systems could cause confidential customer information to be stolen and used for criminal purposes. As personally identifiable and other confidential information is subject to legislation and regulations in numerous domestic and international jurisdictions, inability to protect confidential information of our customers could result in additional cost and liability for us, damage our reputation, inhibit the use of our SaaS services and harm our business.

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We also face indirect technology and cybersecurity risks relating to our business partners, including our third-party payment service providers who manage the transfer of customer funds. As a result of increasing consolidation and interdependence of computer systems, a technology failure, cyber-attack or other information or security breach that significantly compromises the systems of one entity could have a material impact on our business partners. Although our agreements with third-party payment service providers provide that each party is responsible for the cybersecurity of its own systems, any cyber-attacks, computer viruses, hackers, denial-of-service attacks, physical or electronic break-ins or similar disruptions of such third-party payment service providers could, among other things, adversely affect our ability to serve our customers, and could even result in misappropriation of funds of our customers. If that were to occur, we and our third-party payment service providers could be held liable to customers who suffer losses from the misappropriation.

Security concerns about online payment systems we use could damage our reputation and deter current and potential users from using our services.

We could be liable for any breach of security relating to our payment platforms or the third-party online payment platforms we use, and concerns about the security of internet transactions could damage our reputation, deter current and potential users from using our SaaS services and have other adverse consequences to our business.

Currently, we sell a substantial portion of our services and applications to our users through third-party online payment platforms using the internet or mobile networks. In all these online payment transactions, secured transmission of confidential information over public networks is essential to maintain consumer confidence. In addition, we expect that an increasing amount of our sales will be conducted over the internet as a result of the growing use of online payment systems. As a result, associated online fraud will likely increase as well. Our current security measures and those of the third parties with whom we transact business may not be adequate. We must be prepared to increase and enhance our security measures and efforts so that our users have confidence in the reliability of the online payment systems that we use, which will impose additional costs and expenses and may still not guarantee complete safety. In addition, we do not have control over the security measures of our third-party online payment vendors. Although we have not in the past experienced material security breaches of the online payments that we use, such security breaches could expose us to litigation and possible liability for failing to secure confidential customer information and could, among other things, damage our reputation and the perceived security of the online payment systems that we use.

Interruptions or delays in service from our third-party data center providers could impair our ability to deliver our SaaS services to our customers, resulting in customer dissatisfaction, damage to our reputation, loss of customers, limited growth, and reduction in revenue.

We currently serve the majority of our customers from third-party data center hosting facilities operated by Amazon Web Services. Our operations depend, in part, on our third-party facility providers’ abilities to protect these facilities against damage or interruption from government actions or natural disasters, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, power or telecommunications failures, and similar events. In the event that any of our third-party facilities arrangements is terminated, or if there is a lapse of service or damage to a facility, we could experience interruptions in our SaaS services as well as delays and additional expenses in arranging new facilities and services.

Any damage to, or failure of, the systems of our third-party providers could result in interruptions to our SaaS services. Despite precautions taken at our data centers, the occurrence of spikes in usage volume, a natural disaster, such as earthquakes or hurricane, an act of terrorism, vandalism or sabotage, a decision to close a facility without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems at a facility could result in lengthy interruptions in the availability of our on-demand software. Even with current and planned disaster recovery arrangements, our business could be harmed. These factors in turn could further reduce our revenue, subject us to liability and cause us to issue credits or cause customers to fail to renew their subscriptions, any of which could materially adversely affect our business.

We are dependent on the continued availability of third-party online marketing and data hosting and transmission services.

A significant portion of our inbound lead generation and date center operating cost is from our third-party services from marketing service providers such as Google ads and data hosting and transmission services. If the costs for such services increase due to vendor consolidation, regulation, contract renegotiation, or otherwise, we may not be able to increase the fees for our CRM Platform or services to cover the changes. As a result, our operating results may be significantly worse than forecast.

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If we do not or cannot maintain the compatibility of our SaaS services with third-party applications that our customers use in their businesses, our revenue will decline.

A significant percentage of our customers choose to integrate our SaaS services with certain capabilities provided by third-party application providers using application programming interfaces, or APIs, published by these providers. We also depend on integrations, for our Trucker Path business to load boards and the Transportation Management Systems of brokers and shippers that interface with the drivers that subscribe to our SaaS services. The functionality, popularity, and continued growth of our product ecosystem depends, in part, on our ability to integrate our SaaS services with third-party applications and platforms, including Amazon Web Services, Here Maps, and Google Cloud, that our customers use and from which they obtain data. Third-party providers of applications and APIs may change the features of their applications and platforms, restrict our access to their applications and platforms, or alter the terms governing use of their applications and APIs and access to those applications and platforms in an adverse manner. Such changes could functionally limit or terminate our ability to use these third-party applications and platforms in conjunction with our SaaS services, which could negatively impact our offerings and harm our business. If we fail to integrate our SaaS services with new third-party applications and platforms that our customers depend upon to use our SaaS services or fail to renew existing relationships pursuant to which we currently provide such integration, we may not be able to offer the functionality that our customers need, which would negatively impact our ability to generate new revenue or maintain existing revenue and adversely impact our business.

We rely on data provided by third parties, the loss of which could limit the functionality of our SaaS services and disrupt our business.

Select functionality of our SaaS services depends on our ability to deliver data required to use our SaaS services. Examples of such data include inbound leads from third party service providers, MLS data, load board information, and GPS coordinates. In the future, any of these third parties could change its data sharing policies, including making them more restrictive, or alter its algorithms that determine the placement, display, and accessibility of search results and social media updates, any of which could result in the loss of, or significant impairment to, our ability to collect and provide useful data to our customers. These third parties could also interpret our or our service providers’ data collection policies or practices as being inconsistent with their policies, which could result in the loss of our ability to collect this data for our customers. Any such changes could impair our ability to deliver data to our customers and could adversely impact select functionality of our SaaS services, impairing the return on investment that our customers derive from using our solution, as well as adversely affecting our business and our ability to generate revenue.

Privacy and data security concerns and end users’ acceptance of internet behavior tracking may limit the applicability, use and adoption of our SaaS services.

Privacy and data security concerns may cause end users to resist providing the personal data or our compilation of the usage data necessary to allow our customers to use our SaaS services effectively. We have implemented various features intended to enable our customers to better protect end user privacy and to ensure data security, but these measures may not alleviate all potential privacy and data security concerns and threats. Even the perception of privacy and data security concerns, whether or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our SaaS services, especially in industries that rely on sensitive personal information or collect data perceived as being sensitive. Privacy and data security laws continue to evolve and change. The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by changes to these laws and regulations may limit the use and adoption of our SaaS services, reduce overall demand for the products and services, increase compliance costs, or lead to significant fines, penalties or liabilities for any noncompliance or loss of any such action.

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Our research and development operations depend on the performance of the internet infrastructure and fixed telecommunications networks in China.

Almost all access to the internet in China is maintained through state-owned telecommunication operators under the administrative control and regulatory supervision of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT. Moreover, we primarily rely on a limited number of telecommunication service providers to provide us with data communications capacity through local telecommunications lines and internet data centers to host our servers. We have limited access to alternative networks or services in the event of disruptions, failures or other problems with China’s internet infrastructure or the fixed telecommunications networks provided by telecommunication service providers. With the expansion of our business, we may be required to upgrade our technology and infrastructure to keep up with the increasing traffic on our websites. We cannot assure you that the internet infrastructure and the fixed telecommunications networks in China will be able to support the demands associated with the continued growth in internet usage.

In addition, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by telecommunication service providers. If the prices we pay for telecommunications and internet services rise significantly, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, if internet access fees or other charges to internet users increase, our user traffic may decline and our business may be harmed.

Our investment interest in Kaixin may continue to be materially adversely affected by Kaixin’s financial and operating performance.

As of the date of this annual report, we hold 32,765,687 ordinary shares and 6,000 convertible preferred shares of Kaixin Auto Holdings, or Kaixin, a Cayman Islands company whose shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market (NASDAQ: KXIN). The fair value of our investment in Kaixin can be negatively impacted by fluctuations in Kaixin’s share price. Subsequent to deconsolidation, we recorded $63.4 million in losses from our equity of loss in Kaixin during 2021. Further, there is a multitude of risks and uncertainties relating to the performance and valuation of Kaixin, including risks relating to Kaixin’s ability to operate and compete in the highly competitive automobile sales industry in China. As such, the value or liquidity of our investments in Kaixin could decline and result in a material impairment, which could result in a material write-down of our investment in Kaixin. In addition, we issued a standby letter of credit to the benefit of East West Bank that guarantees Kaixin’s payment of approximately US$9.3 million to East West Bank. We believe the guarantee will not be released in the foreseeable future. We have, therefore, recorded a provision for the value of the guarantee.

Our business may be materially adversely affected by COVID-19 or other epidemics that impact the global economy or the economies of the markets we serve and operate in.

During 2020 and most of 2021 the global economy suffered from the outbreak of COVID-19. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 a pandemic. COVID-19 has resulted in quarantines, travel restrictions, and the temporary closure of businesses and facilities worldwide.

Our results of operations have been, and could continue to be adversely, and may be materially affected, to the extent that COVID-19 or any other epidemic impacts the global economy. Any potential impact to our results will depend, to a large extent, on future developments regarding the duration and severity of COVID-19 or other epidemics and the actions taken by government authorities and other entities to contain and manage the impact of COVID-19 or other epidemics, including the extent of mandates that restrict travel and the ability to conduct business, almost all of which are beyond our control.

The extent to which COVID-19 or other epidemics impact our long-term results remains uncertain. There are still significant uncertainties regarding COVID-19’s future impact, as we are unable to predict the likelihood, extent and severity of additional variants and treatments for such variants, the actions that may be taken by government authorities including lockdowns, government stimulus measures, and mandates, all of which are beyond our control. As a result, any material adverse impact resulting from COVID-19 or other epidemics could result in certain of our current balance sheet estimates and assumptions that require significant judgment and are subject to variability to change materially in future periods.

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A severe or prolonged downturn in the U.S. or global economy could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

COVID-19 has had a severe and negative impact on the global economy since early 2020. Since the pandemic global central banks and governments have accelerated expansionary monetary and fiscal policies which have led to inflation rates in the U.S. that rival those seen in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Unrest, terrorist threats, and the potential for war may increase market volatility across the globe. In particular, the military conflicts of Russia with Ukraine and the escalation of tension between Russia and other countries, including the U.S. and European countries, as well as between China and other countries, including surrounding Asian countries, may have unpredictable economic consequences. There is still significant uncertainty about the future relationship among these countries with respect to territorial disputes, trade policies, treaties, government regulations, and tariffs. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or US economy or any country in which we have operations may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We have granted, and may continue to grant, share options, restricted share units, and other share-based awards under our equity incentive plans, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.

We have adopted seven equity incentive plans for Renren Inc. in 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2016, 2018 and 2021, respectively. As of March 31, 2022, options and restricted share units to acquire 169,984,085 Class A ordinary shares of Renren Inc. were outstanding. For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, we recorded US$8.6 million, US$15.3 million and US$8.5 million, respectively, in share-based compensation expenses. As of December 31, 2021, we had US$0.5 million of unrecognized share-based compensation expenses relating to share options, which are expected to be recognized over a weighted average vesting period of 0.25 years, and US$5.6 million of unrecognized share-based compensation expenses relating to non-vested restricted share units, which are expected to be recognized over a weighted average vesting period of 1.4 years.

On March 24, 2020, our compensation committee approved a reduction in the exercise price for all outstanding options previously granted by our company with an exercise price higher than US$0.0113 per ordinary share to US$0.0113 per share, representing the closing price of our ADSs on the NYSE on March 18, 2020.

On November 4, 2021, our board of directors approved a 2021 Equity Incentive Plan for each of Renren, Inc., Chime Technologies, Inc., and Trucker Path, Inc. As of December 31, 2021, no shares have been issued under these plans. Share awards granted under these plans are expected to result in increased share-based compensation expenses in 2022 as shares are issued pursuant to these awards.

We believe the granting of share options, restricted share units and other share-based awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share options and restricted share units to key personnel and employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our ownership interest in our SaaS operating businesses Chime and Trucker Path may be diluted if the respective companies issue new shares to third parties to raise capital or pursuant to their equity incentive plans.

We have adopted two equity incentive plans in 2020 and 2021 for each of our subsidiaries Chime Technologies, Inc. and Trucker Path, Inc. As of March 31, 2022, options and restricted stock units to acquire 10,642,100 shares of common stock of Chime Technologies, Inc. were outstanding. As of March 31, 2022, options and restricted stock units to acquire 10,341,600 shares of common stock of Trucker Path, Inc. were outstanding. If Chime Technologies, Inc. and Trucker Path, Inc. issue new shares upon vesting and/or exercise of these share-based awards, such new issuances would dilute our ownership and economic interests in such companies, and correspondingly those of our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs. In addition, each of Chime Technologies, Inc. and Trucker Path, Inc. may in the future issue additional shares to raise capital to fund their respective business growth. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our proportion of ownership interest in either company after the completion of such capital-raising activities.

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We may from time to time be subject to claims, controversies, lawsuits and legal proceedings, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and reputation.

We may from time to time become subject to or involved in various claims, controversies, lawsuits, and legal proceedings. For example, we are currently involved in certain derivative lawsuits, as nominal defendant, in connection with the Oak Pacific Investments, or OPI, Transaction. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—A. History and Development of the Company—The OPI Transaction” and “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings” for information about these ongoing legal proceedings. Lawsuits and litigation may cause us to incur defense costs, utilize a significant portion of our resources and divert management’s attention from our day-to-day operations, any of which could harm our business. Any settlements or judgments against us could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, negative publicity regarding claims or judgments made against us may damage our reputation and may result in material adverse impact on us.

We may not be able to prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We rely on a combination of monitoring and enforcement of trademark, patent, copyright and trade secret protection laws in the United States, China and other jurisdictions, as well as through confidentiality agreements and procedures, to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our precautions, third parties may obtain and make unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which includes trademarks related to our brands, products and services, patent applications, registered domain names, copyrights in software and creative content, trade secrets and other intellectual property rights and licenses. We cannot assure you that the measures we have taken will be sufficient to prevent any misappropriation of our intellectual properties. In addition, because of the rapid pace of technological change in our industry, parts of our business rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these third parties on reasonable terms, or at all.

Preventing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property may be difficult and costly and the steps we take may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in any such litigation. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to our competitors, or our competitors may independently discover them. To the extent that our employees or consultants use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related know-how and inventions. Any failure in protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.

We cannot be certain that our operations or any aspects of our business does not or will not infringe upon or otherwise violate trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may from time to time in the future become subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights of others. In addition, there may be third-party trademarks, patents, copyrights, know-how or other intellectual property rights that are infringed by our products, services or other aspects of our business without its awareness. Holders of such intellectual property rights may seek to enforce such intellectual property rights against us in the United States, China or other jurisdictions. If any third-party infringement claims are brought against us, we may be forced to divert management’s time and other resources from our business and operations to defend against these claims, regardless of their merits. If we were found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be subject to liability for its infringement activities or may be prohibited from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternatives of our own. As a result, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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We have been and may continue to be subject to intellectual property infringement claims or other allegations by third parties for services we provide or for information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our websites or distributed to our users, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.

Internet, technology and media companies are frequently involved in litigation based on allegations of infringement of intellectual property rights, unfair competition, invasion of privacy, defamation and other violations of other parties’ rights. The validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property rights in internet-related industries are uncertain and evolving. As we face increasing competition, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims. Intellectual property claims and litigation are expensive and time-consuming to investigate and defend. Such claims may divert resources and management attention from the operation of our business. Even if such claims do not result in liability, it may harm our reputation. Any resulting liability or expenses, or changes required to our websites and related SaaS services to reduce the risk of future liability, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and prospects.

During the course of the audits of our consolidated financial statements, we and our independent registered public accounting firms identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to re-establish and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results or prevent fraud may be adversely affected, and investor confidence and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely impacted.

We are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. The Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, adopted rules pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requiring every public company to include a management report on such company’s internal control over financial reporting in its annual report, which contains management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.

We and our independent registered public accounting firm, in connection with our preparation and external audit of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020, identified four material weaknesses related to (i) inadequate technical competency of financial staff in charge of significant and complex transactions to ensure that those transactions are properly accounted for in accordance with U.S. GAAP; (ii) lack of an effective and continuous risk assessment procedure to identify and assess the financial reporting risks; (iii) lack of evaluations to ascertain whether the components of internal control are present and functioning; and (iv) inadequate controls over inventory custody at local dealerships of Kaixin.

During the course of 2021, our management has taken various measures to address the identified material weaknesses in internal control such as the hiring of key financial personnel, including a new chief financial officer, as well as both global and local controllers. We had initiated processes for improving the design and effectiveness of internal controls at both the entity and transaction level. In addition, we had modified the reporting structure of the finance department to enhance the supervision of internal control implementation at the components to address complex transactions as they occur.

As of December 31, 2021, we had remediated the material weaknesses related to the technical competency of financial staff and controls over inventory custody while the material weaknesses related to effective and continuous risk assessment procedures, and evaluations of functioning of components of internal control remained unremediated. See “Item 15. Controls and Procedures—Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting.” Measures that we implement to address these material weaknesses and other control deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting might not fully address them, and we might not be able to conclude that they have been fully remedied.

Failure to correct these material weaknesses and other control deficiencies or failure to discover and address any other control deficiencies could result in inaccuracies in our consolidated financial statements and could also impair our ability to comply with applicable financial reporting requirements and make related regulatory filings on a timely basis. As a result, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ADSs, may be materially and adversely affected. Due to the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting as described above, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2021. This could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs due to a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our reporting processes.

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The continuing and collaborative efforts of our senior management, key employees and highly skilled personnel are crucial to our success, and our business may be harmed if we were to lose their services.

Our success depends on the continuous effort and services of our experienced senior management team, in particular Mr. Joseph Chen, our founder, chairman and chief executive officer, Mr. James Jian Liu, our executive director and chief operating officer, Henry Li, our Vice President for Product and Engineering, and Chris Palmer, our Chief Financial Officer. If one or more of our executive officers or other key personnel are unable or unwilling to continue to provide us with their services, we may not be able to replace them easily or at all. Our business may be severely disrupted, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Competition for management and key personnel is intense and the pool of qualified candidates is limited. We may not be able to retain the services of our executive officers or key personnel, or attract and retain experienced executive officers or key personnel in the future. If any of our executive officers or key employees join a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose know-how and key professionals and staff members.

Our performance and future success also depend on our ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel for all areas of our organization. Competition in the SaaS industry for qualified employees, including technical personnel capable of designing innovative services and products, is intense, and if competition in SaaS and the industries our products serve further intensifies, it may be more difficult for us to hire, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel. If we do not succeed in attracting additional highly skilled personnel or retaining or motivating our existing personnel or if we must incur significantly greater expenses to recruit, train and retain personnel, we may be unable to grow effectively or at all.

Certain management responsibilities at OPI may divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business.

Our chief executive officer Joseph Chen and our chief operating officer James Jian Liu each holds the same management position in OPI. Mr. Chen is also the second largest shareholder in OPI. OPI was a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours prior to June 2018, and it holds a large portfolio of shares in a variety of early-stage and late-stage pre-IPO companies that our management had previously selected and managed for our company. Although OPI no longer has any business relationship with our company, the disposition of OPI has not necessarily reduced the workload of our management. However, time and effort spent by our management on OPI does not benefit shareholders of our company anymore. Mr. Chen’s and Mr. Liu’s involvement in OPI may divert their attention from the operation of our business, which may affect our company’s financial performance and future prospects.

Increases in labor costs and the enforcement or revision of labor laws, regulations, and employment policies in our countries of operation may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

The global economy has experienced increases in inflation and labor costs in recent years and 2021 in particular. As a result, average wages and benefits we pay to employees and service providers in the United States, China, the Philippines, and other countries in which we operate are expected to continue to increase.

We continue to employ large numbers of personnel in the PRC. PRC Labor Contract Law, as amended, and its implementation rules, set forth various requirements about the terms of labor contracts, including, minimum wages, remuneration, the term of probation periods and termination conditions. In the event that we decide to terminate or change the employment relationship with some employees, PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules may limit our ability to complete the terminations or changes in a desirable, timely, or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

In all of our operating locations, we and our employees are required to make contributions for social security, unemployment, and other benefits as required by the governments of the countries in which we operate. For example, under the PRC Social Insurance Law and the Administrative Measures on Housing Fund, employees are required to participate in pension insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, maternity insurance, and housing funds, and employers are required to pay the social insurance premiums and housing funds for their employees to the extent required under applicable local laws. Employers that fail to make adequate social insurance and housing fund contributions may be subject to fines and legal sanctions. If the PRC authorities in any of our countries of operations determine that we have failed to make contributions as required by law the authorities may require that we make supplemental contributions, pay fines, rectify, or other impose other sanctions, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Companies operating in China are also required to withhold individual income tax on employees’ wages based on the actual payment of wages to the employees according to the PRC Individual Income Tax Law, as amended in 2018. The new PRC Individual Income Tax Law provides that individuals who do not have a domicile in China but have stayed in China for at least an aggregate of 183 days within a single tax year will be deemed as resident individuals, and the employer, as the withholding agent, shall withhold and prepay tax for their employees on a monthly basis. Due to the evolution of PRC tax laws and regulations, our compliance cost has increased as well. If we fail to withhold individual income tax for our employees timely, we may be subject to administrative penalty. For example, Beijing Qianxiang Wangjing Technology Development Co., Ltd., or Qianxiang Wangjing, was fined of RMB151,786 (US$21,803) by Beijing local tax authority on December 25, 2019 due to failure to withhold employees’ individual income tax for its payment of additional medical insurance to its employees. Qianxiang Wangjing fully paid the penalty to Beijing local tax authority timely.

Furthermore, the interpretation and implementation of labor-related laws, employment mandates, and regulations are evolving. We cannot assure you that our employment practices do not and will not violate any labor laws and regulations, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations.

If we are unable to control our labor costs or pass on these increased labor costs to others, or if we are deemed to have violated labor laws and regulations, our financial condition, and results of operations may be adversely affected.

A new health epidemic could significantly disrupt our operations and adversely affect our results of operations.

In addition to the impact of COVID-19, our business could be significantly affected by other public health emergencies or epidemics that may hit the countries where we operate our business. Any future outbreak of a contagious disease, and other adverse public health developments may restrict economic activities in affected regions, resulting in reduced business volume, temporary closure of our offices or otherwise disrupt our business operations and adversely affect our results of operations.

We face risks related to natural disasters, which could significantly disrupt our operations.

We are vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities such as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes and other adverse weather and climate conditions. Although we have servers that are hosted by third party service providers in an offsite location and we back-up our systems frequently, our backup system does not capture data on a real-time basis and we may be unable to recover certain data in the event of a server failure. We cannot assure that any backup systems will be adequate to protect us from the effects of fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide our SaaS services.

Negative media coverage could adversely affect our business.

Negative publicity about us or our business, shareholders, affiliates, directors, officers or other employees, as well as the industry in which we operate, can harm our operations. Such negative publicity could be related to a variety of matters, including:

alleged misconduct or other improper activities committed by our shareholders, affiliates, directors, officers and other employees;
false or malicious allegations or rumors about us or our shareholders, affiliates, directors, officers and other employees;
user complaints about the quality of our products and services;
copyright infringements involving us and content offered on our platform;
security breaches of confidential user information; and
governmental and regulatory investigations or penalties resulting from our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations.

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In addition to traditional media, social media platforms including instant messaging applications, social media websites, and other forms of internet-based communications provide individuals with access to a broad audience of users and other interested persons. The ability of users to distribute their viewpoints and make information available on instant messaging applications and social media platforms is virtually immediate and potentially viral, often without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction. The opportunity for social media users to disseminate information, including inaccurate information, is inexpensive and seemingly limitless. Information concerning our company, shareholders, directors, officers, and employees may be posted on and distributed through such platforms at any time. The risks associated with any such negative publicity or incorrect information cannot be completely eliminated or mitigated and may materially harm our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We have limited business insurance coverage.

We do not have any business liability or disruption insurance to cover our operations. We have determined that the costs of insuring for these risks and the difficulties associated with acquiring such insurance on commercially reasonable terms make it impractical for us to have such insurance. Any uninsured occurrence of business disruption may result in our incurring substantial costs and the diversion of resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Any disruption of a lengthy duration could disrupt our product development, result in delayed product releases, and cause delays in the resolution of bugs and defects in our SaaS services. Such disruptions could adversely affect revenue, subscriber growth, subscriber satisfaction, and the company’s reputation.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

Our dual-class voting structure allows our two largest shareholders to significantly influence our actions over important corporate matters, will limit your ability to influence corporate matters, and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

We have a dual-class voting structure which consists of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Subject to certain exceptions, in respect of matters requiring the votes of shareholders, holders of Class A ordinary shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B ordinary shares are entitled to ten votes per share. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof, while Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Upon any transfer of Class B ordinary shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity which is not an affiliate of such holder, such Class B ordinary shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into the equal number of Class A ordinary shares.

We issued Class A ordinary shares represented by our ADSs in our initial public offering in May 2011. Mr. Joseph Chen, who is our founder, chairman and chief executive officer, and SoftBank Group Capital Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SoftBank Group Corp., are our only shareholders who hold Class B ordinary shares. As of March 31, 2022, Mr. Joseph Chen, our founder, chairman and chief executive officer, beneficially owned approximately 15.1% of our outstanding Class A ordinary shares and approximately 55.8% of our outstanding Class B ordinary shares, representing in aggregate 47.2% of our total voting power, and SoftBank Group Capital Limited owned approximately 33.1% of our outstanding Class A ordinary shares and approximately 44.2% of our outstanding Class B ordinary shares, representing in aggregate 41.9% of our total voting power.

Due in large part to the disparate voting powers attached to the two classes of ordinary shares, Mr. Chen and SoftBank Group Capital Limited have controlling power over matters requiring shareholder approval, subject to certain exceptions. As between Mr. Chen and SoftBank Group Capital Limited, the approvals of SoftBank Group Capital Limited are required for certain important matters relating to our company. See “Item 10. Additional Information—B. Memorandum and Articles of Association—Ordinary Shares—Voting Rights.” This concentration of ownership and voting power in the hands of Mr. Chen and SoftBank Group Capital Limited may also discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could have the dual effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and reducing the price of our ADSs. These actions may be taken even if they are opposed by our other shareholders, including those who purchase ADSs. In addition, these persons could divert business opportunities away from us to themselves or others.

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If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for our operations in China do not comply with PRC governmental restrictions on foreign investment, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

Current PRC laws and regulations place certain restrictions on foreign ownership of companies that engage in internet businesses, including the provision of social networking services. Specifically, foreign ownership of internet service providers or other value-added telecommunication service providers generally may not exceed 50%. In addition, according to the Several Opinions on the Introduction of Foreign Investment in the Cultural Industry promulgated by the Ministry of Culture, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, or the SARFT, the General Administration of Press and Publication, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce in June 2005, foreign investors are prohibited from investing in or operating any internet cultural operating entities.

We previously conducted our SNS and live streaming operations in China principally through a set of contractual arrangements between our wholly owned PRC subsidiary, Qianxiang Shiji Technology Development (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or Qianxiang Shiji, and Beijing Qianxiang Tiancheng Technology Development Co., Ltd., or Qianxiang Tiancheng, and Qianxiang Tiancheng’s shareholders. These contractual arrangements enable us to become the primary beneficiary of Qianxiang Tiancheng as well as its subsidiaries for accounting purpose under U.S. GAAP, and hence we consolidate the results of these entities into our financial statements. For a detailed discussion of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4.C—Information on the Company—Organizational Structure—Contractual Arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng.”

Based on the advice of Commerce & Finance Law Offices, our PRC legal counsel, the corporate structure of Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries, as well as our subsidiaries in China comply with all existing PRC laws and regulations. However, as there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that the PRC government would agree that our corporate structure or any of the above contractual arrangements comply with PRC licensing, registration or other regulatory requirements, with existing policies or with requirements or policies that may be adopted in the future. PRC laws and regulations governing the validity of these contractual arrangements are uncertain and the relevant government authorities have broad discretion in interpreting these laws and regulations. If the PRC government determines that we do not comply with applicable laws and regulations, it could:

revoke the business and operating licenses of our subsidiaries and/or the VIE and its subsidiaries;
discontinue or restrict any related-party transactions between our subsidiaries and Qianxiang Tiancheng or its subsidiaries;
impose fines on us or impose additional conditions or requirements on us with which we may not be able to comply;
require us to revise our ownership structure or restructure our operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and deregistering the equity pledges of Qianxiang Tiancheng’s shareholders, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate or exert effective control over Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries; and
restrict or prohibit our use of the proceeds of any additional public offering to finance our business and operations in China.

The imposition of any of these penalties may result in a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business. If any of these penalties results in our inability to direct the activities of Qianxiang Tiancheng and/or its subsidiaries, or results in our failure to receive the economic benefits from Qianxiang Tiancheng and/or its subsidiaries, we may not be able to consolidate the Qianxiang Tiancheng and/or its subsidiaries in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, Qianxiang Tiancheng or its subsidiaries contributed in the aggregate 43.6%, 2.4% and 1.1%, respectively, of our consolidated revenues.

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We have contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng for some of our China operations, which may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership. Any failure by Qianxiang Tiancheng or its shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct business and negatively affect our financial condition.

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders for some of our operations in China. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4.C—Information on the Company— Organizational Structure—Contractual Arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng.” These contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing us with control over Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries, which we refer to collectively as the VIE and its subsidiaries in this annual report, as direct ownership. If we had direct ownership of the VIE and its subsidiaries, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of each of these entities, which in turn could effect changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance by Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders of their obligations under the contractual arrangements to exercise control over the VIE and its subsidiaries. Therefore, our contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders may not be as effective in ensuring our control over our China operations as direct ownership would be.

If Qianxiang Tiancheng or its shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements of which they are a party, we may have to incur substantial costs and resources to enforce our rights under the contracts, and rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief and claiming damages, which may not be effective. For example, if the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng were to refuse to transfer their equity interests in Qianxiang Tiancheng to us or our designee when we exercise the call option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, or if they were otherwise to act in bad faith toward us, then we may have to take legal action to compel them to perform their respective contractual obligations.

All of these contractual arrangements are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in the PRC. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would incur additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over the VIE and its subsidiaries, and our ability to conduct our business may be severely and negatively affected.

The approval, filing or other requirements of the CSRC, the CAC or other PRC government authorities may be required under PRC law in connection with our issuance of securities overseas.

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, purport to require offshore special purpose vehicles that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals and that have been formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets to obtain approval from the CSRC prior to publicly listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear. If CSRC’s approval under the M&A Rules is required, it is uncertain whether it would be possible for us to obtain the approval, and any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining CSRC approval for our future issuance of securities overseas would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC and other PRC regulatory agencies.

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Furthermore, the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities, which was released on July 6, 2021, emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over “illegal securities activities” and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies, and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies, although such opinions did not specify the definition of “illegal securities activities.” On December 24, 2021, the CSRC released the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offerings and Listings by Domestic Companies (for Public Comments), or the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, and the Administrative Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offerings and Listings by Domestic Companies (for Public Comments), or the Draft Overseas Listing Measures, for public comments. These drafts stipulate that PRC domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets directly or indirectly shall complete the filing procedures with and report relevant information to the CSRC. Pursuant to these drafts, the determination as to whether a PRC domestic company is indirectly offering and listing in an overseas market shall be made on a substance over form basis, if the issuer meets the following conditions, its offering and listing will be deemed as an “indirect overseas offering and listing by a PRC domestic company” and is therefore subject to the filing requirement: (i) the revenues, profits, total assets or net assets of the Chinese operating entities in the most recent financial year accounts for more than 50% of the corresponding data in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statements for the same period; (ii) the majority of senior management in charge of business operation are Chinese citizens or have domicile in PRC, and its principal place of business is located in PRC or main business activities are conducted in PRC. In addition, these drafts prescribe that the domestic enterprises should submit filing documents to the CSRC within three business days after the submission of the application for overseas initial public offering, and after completing the filing procedures for an overseas initial public offering and listing, for the purposes of implementing and strengthening the CSRC’s supervision, the issuer will need to comply with continuous filing and reporting requirements after such offering and listing, among others, including the following: (i) filing for follow-on offerings after the initial offering and listing, (ii) filing for transactions in which the issuer issues securities for acquiring assets, and (iii) reporting material events after the initial offering and listing. However, the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations and the Draft Overseas Listing Measures were released for public comment only, there remains substantial uncertainty, including but not limited to its final content, adoption timeline, effective date or relevant implementation rules. As of the date of this annual report, we cannot predict the impact of these regulations on maintaining the listing status of our ADSs and/or other securities, or any of our future offerings of securities overseas in a foreign country.

In addition, on December 28, 2021, the CAC, and several other regulatory authorities in China jointly promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022. Pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, (i) an operator of critical information infrastructure that purchases network products and services, or an internet platform operator that conducts data process activities which affects or may affect national security shall be subject to the cybersecurity review, (ii) an application for cybersecurity review shall be made by an issuer who is an internet platform operator holding personal information of more than one million users before such issuer applies to list overseas, and (iii) relevant governmental authorities in the PRC may initiate cybersecurity review if they determine an operator’s network products or services or data processing activities affect or may affect national security. As the Cybersecurity Review Measures was newly issued, there remain uncertainties as to how it would be interpreted and enforced, and to what extent it may affect us.

On December 27, 2021, the NDRC and the MOFCOM, jointly issued the Special Administrative Measures for Entry of Foreign Investment (Negative List) (2021 Version), or the Negative List, which became effective on January 1, 2022 and replaced the previous version. Pursuant to Article 6 of the Negative List, if a PRC company, which engages in any business where foreign investment is prohibited under the Negative List, or prohibited businesses, seeks an overseas offering or listing, it must obtain the approval from competent governmental authorities. Additionally, foreign investors in such PRC company must not take part in the company’s operation or management, and their shareholding ratio should be subject to regulations relating to the management of PRC securities investments by foreign investors. The Negative List has made it clear that the application scope of Article 6 is limited to domestic enterprises engaged in “prohibited businesses” from directly overseas or listing. According to a set of Q&A published on the NDRC’s official website, a NDRC official indicated that after a PRC company submits its application for overseas listing to the CSRC and where matters relating to prohibited businesses under the Negative List are implicated, the CSRC will consult the regulatory authorities having jurisdiction over the relevant industries and fields.

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If the CSRC, the CAC or other relevant PRC regulatory agencies subsequently determine that prior approval is required for any of our future offerings of securities overseas or to maintain the listing status of our ADSs, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain such approval in a timely manner, or at all. The CSRC, the CAC or other PRC regulatory agencies also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, not to proceed with such offering or maintain the listing status of our ADSs. If we proceed with any of such offering or maintain the listing status of our ADSs without obtaining these regulatory agencies’ approval to the extent it is required, or if we are unable to comply with any new approval requirements which might be adopted for offerings that we have completed prior to the publication of the above-referenced opinions, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from these regulatory agencies. These regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from offering of securities overseas into China or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of the ADSs.

Furthermore, if there are any other approvals, filings and/or other administration procedures to be obtained from or completed with the CSRC, the CAC or other PRC regulatory agencies as required by any new laws and regulations for any of our future proposed offering of securities overseas or the listing of the ADSs, we cannot assure that we can obtain the required approval or complete the required filings or other regulatory procedures in a timely manner, or at all. Any failure to obtain the relevant approvals or complete the filings and other relevant regulatory procedures may subject us to regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

The contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities, and a finding that we or the VIE and its subsidiaries owe additional taxes could substantially reduce our consolidated net income and the value of your investment.

Under PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions between related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements between Qianxiang Shiji and Qianxiang Tiancheng do not represent arm’s-length prices and consequently adjust their respective income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by Qianxiang Tiancheng for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase their respective tax liabilities. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on Qianxiang Tiancheng for any unpaid taxes. Our consolidated net income may be materially and adversely affected if Qianxiang Tiancheng’s tax liabilities increase or if it is subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

The shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business.

Each of Ms. Jing Yang and Mr. James Jian Liu is a shareholder of Qianxiang Tiancheng. Ms. Jing Yang is the wife of Mr. Joseph Chen, our founder, chairman and chief executive officer, and Mr. James Jian Liu is our executive director and chief operating officer. Conflicts of interest may arise between the dual role of Mr. James Jian Liu as a director and officer of our company and as shareholder of Qianxiang Tiancheng. Conflicts of interest may also arise between the interests of Ms. Jing Yang as shareholder of Qianxiang Tiancheng and as the wife of our founder and chief executive officer. Furthermore, if Ms. Jing Yang experiences domestic conflict with Mr. Joseph Chen, she may have little or no incentive to act in the interest of our company, and she may not perform her obligations under the contractual arrangements she has entered into with Qianxiang Tiancheng.

Officers of our company owe a duty of loyalty and care to our company and to our shareholders as a whole under Cayman Islands law. We cannot assure that when conflicts arise, the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng will act in the best interests of our company or that conflicts will be resolved in our favor. If we cannot resolve any conflicts of interest or disputes between us and these shareholders, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which may be expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to our operations. There is also substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

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Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

The National People’s Congress approved the Foreign Investment Law on March 15, 2019 and the State Council approved the Regulation on Implementing the Foreign Investment Law, or the Implementation Regulations, on December 12, 2019, effective from January 1, 2020, which replaced existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The Supreme People’s Court of China issued a judicial interpretation on the Foreign Investment Law on December 27, 2019, effective from January 1, 2020, to ensure fair and efficient implementation of the Foreign Investment Law. According to the judicial interpretation, courts in China shall not, among other things, support contracted parties to claim foreign investment contracts in sectors not on the Special Administrative Measures for Entry of Foreign Investment (Negative List) (2021 Version) as void because the contracts have not been approved or registered by administrative authorities. The Foreign Investment Law and Implementation Regulations embody an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments.

However, since these rules are relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to their interpretation. For instance, under the Foreign Investment Law, “foreign investment” refers to the investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by foreign individuals, enterprises or other entities in China. Though it does not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, there is no assurance that foreign investment via contractual arrangement would not be interpreted as a type of indirect foreign investment activities under the definition in the future. In addition, the definition contains a catch-all provision which includes investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the Stale Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. In any of these cases, it will be uncertain whether our contractual arrangements will be deemed to be in violation of the market access requirements for foreign investment under the PRC laws and regulations, or whether they may be invalid in whole or in part. Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may restrict or prevent us from using funds that we hold offshore to make loans to our PRC subsidiaries and the VIE and its subsidiaries or to make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which may materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

We are an offshore holding company conducting our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries and the VIE and its subsidiaries. We may make loans to our PRC subsidiaries and the VIE and its subsidiaries, or we may make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries.

Any loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries, which are treated as foreign-invested enterprises under PRC law, are subject to PRC regulations and foreign exchange loan registrations. For example, loans by us to our wholly owned PRC subsidiaries to finance their activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE. If we decide to finance our wholly owned PRC subsidiaries by means of capital contributions, these capital contributions must be approved by the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterpart. Due to the restrictions imposed on loans in foreign currencies extended to any PRC domestic companies, we are not likely to make such loans to the VIE and its subsidiaries, which are PRC domestic companies. Further, we are not likely to finance the activities of the VIE and its subsidiaries by means of capital contributions due to regulatory restrictions relating to foreign investment in PRC domestic enterprises engaged in social networking services, online advertising and related businesses.

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SAFE promulgated a circular in November 2010, known as the Circular No. 59, which tightens the examination of the authenticity of settlement of net proceeds from our initial public offering and requires that the settlement of net proceeds shall be in accordance with the description in the prospectus included in our registration statement on Form F-1 (Registration No. 333-173548), which was filed with the SEC in connection with our initial public offering. In March 2015, SAFE issued the Circular on Reform of the Administrative Rules of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or the SAFE Circular 19, which became effective on June 1, 2015. In June 2016, the SAFE issued the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Regulating Policies on the Control over Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital Accounts, or the SAFE Circular 16, which revised some provisions of the SAFE Circular 19. According to the SAFE Circular 19 and the SAFE Circular 16, the flow and use of the Renminbi capital converted from registered capital denominated in foreign currency of a foreign-invested company is regulated such that Renminbi capital may not be used for business beyond its business scope or to provide loans to persons other than the foreign-invested company’s affiliates unless otherwise permitted under its business scope. Violations of the SAFE Circular 19 or the SAFE Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. Pursuant to the SAFE Circular 19 and the SAFE Circular 16, foreign-invested enterprises may either continue to follow the current payment-based foreign currency settlement system or choose to follow the “conversion-at-will” system for foreign currency settlement. Where a foreign-invested enterprise follows the conversion-at-will system for foreign currency settlement, it may convert part or all of the amount of the foreign currency in its capital account into Renminbi at any time. The converted Renminbi will be kept in a designated account labeled as settled but pending payment, and if the foreign-invested enterprise needs to make payment from such designated account, it still needs to go through the review process with its bank and provide necessary supporting documents. The SAFE Circular 19 and the SAFE Circular 16, therefore, has substantially lifted the restrictions on the usage by a foreign-invested enterprise of its Renminbi registered capital converted from foreign currencies. According to the SAFE Circular 19 and the SAFE Circular 16, such Renminbi capital may be used at the discretion of the foreign-invested enterprise and SAFE will eliminate the prior approval requirement and only examine the authenticity of the declared usage afterwards. Nevertheless, foreign-invested enterprises like our PRC subsidiaries are still not allowed to extend intercompany loans to Qianxiang Tiancheng. In addition, as the SAFE Circular 19 and the SAFE Circular 16 were promulgated recently, there remain substantial uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and implementation of this circular by relevant authorities.

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries or the VIE and its subsidiaries or with respect to future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiaries. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use funds we hold offshore to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

If we are required to pay U.S. taxes, the value of your investment in our company could be substantially reduced.

If, pursuant to a plan or a series of related transactions, a non-United States corporation, such as our company, acquires substantially all of the assets of a United States corporation, and after the acquisition 80% or more of the stock, by vote or value, of the non-United States corporation, excluding stock issued in a public offering related to the acquisition, is owned by former shareholders of the United States corporation by reason of their ownership of the United States corporation, the non-United States corporation will be considered a United States corporation for United States federal income tax purposes. Based on our analysis of the facts related to our corporate restructuring in 2005 and 2006, we do not believe that we should be treated as a United States corporation for United States federal income tax purposes. However, as there is no direct authority on how the relevant rules of the Internal Revenue Code might apply to us, our company’s conclusion is not free from doubt. Therefore, our conclusion may be challenged by the United States tax authorities and a finding that we owe additional United States taxes could substantially reduce the value of your investment in our company. You are urged to consult your tax advisor concerning the income tax consequences of purchasing, holding or disposing of ADSs or ordinary shares if we were to be treated as a United States domestic corporation for United States federal income tax purposes.

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The PRC government’s significant oversight over our business operation in China could result in a material adverse change in our operations.

We conduct a limited portion of our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries and the VIE and its subsidiaries. In the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, the VIE and its subsidiaries contributed in the aggregate 43.6%, 2.4% and 1.1%, respectively, of our consolidated revenues. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. While our operation in China is limited, the PRC government’s significant oversight over our business operation in China could result in a material adverse change in our operations. The Chinese government may intervene or influence our business operation in China at any time, or may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers, which could result in a material change in our operations.

There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the laws and regulations governing our business operation in China, or the enforcement and performance of our contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng. These laws and regulations may be subject to change, the enforcement of laws and regulations in China could be uncertain and the of rules and policies in China may change quickly with little advance notice, which could result in a material adverse change in our operations. New laws and regulations that affect existing and proposed future businesses may also be applied retroactively. Due to the uncertainty and complexity of the regulatory environment, we cannot assure you that our business operation in China would always be in full compliance with applicable laws and regulations, the violation of which may have adverse effect on our business operation in China and our reputation.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

Most of our revenues are denominated in U.S. dollar, while a substantial portion of our expenses is denominated in Renminbi, as a majority of our employees are located in China. The Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. The value of Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. We cannot assure you that Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

Any significant appreciation or depreciation of Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our cost, expenses and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. dollars. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive into Renminbi to pay our operating expenses, appreciation of Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

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PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore holding companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us, or may otherwise adversely affect us.

SAFE has promulgated several regulations, including the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control of Domestic Residents’ Overseas Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles, or the SAFE Circular 37, issued in 2014, which replaced the former Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents to Engage in Financing and Inbound Investment via Overseas Special Purpose Vehicles (generally known as the SAFE Circular 75) promulgated by SAFE in October 2005. The SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, which is referred to in the SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” The SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as an increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC residents, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material events. In the event that a PRC resident holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to complete the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiaries. Furthermore, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls.

Mr. Joseph Chen, our founder, chairman and chief executive officer, is not a PRC citizen, but has established and maintains a major shareholding in our company. Based on our oral inquiry with the relevant local branch of SAFE, neither the requirements for registration under the SAFE Circular 75 nor the requirements for registration under the SAFE Circular 37 are applicable to Mr. Chen.

Mr. James Jian Liu, our executive director and chief operating officer, and a few other senior management personnel of our company, all of whom are PRC residents, became shareholders of our company as a result of the exercise of employee share options. Based on our inquiry with the relevant local branch of SAFE, any application to such local SAFE branch with respect to the registration of Mr. Liu and the other PRC resident shareholders’ holdings of shares in our offshore holding company under the SAFE Circular 75 or the SAFE Circular 37 and related rules will not be officially accepted or examined because they became shareholders of our offshore holding company as a result of their exercise of employee share options.

However, we cannot conclude that SAFE or its local branch responsible for our PRC subsidiary’s foreign exchange registrations will not later alter their position on and interpretation of the applicability of these foreign exchange regulations to Mr. Chen, Mr. Liu or the other PRC resident shareholders of our company. In the event that the registration procedures set forth in these foreign exchange regulations becomes applicable to Mr. Chen, Mr. Liu or any of the PRC resident shareholders of our company, we will urge these individuals to file necessary registrations and amendments as required under the SAFE Circular 37 and related rules. However, we cannot assure you that all of these individuals can successfully file or update any applicable registration or obtain the necessary approval required by these foreign exchange regulations. We can provide no assurance that we will in the future continue to be informed of the identities of all PRC residents holding direct or indirect interests in our company. The failure or inability of such individuals to comply with the registration procedures set forth in these regulations may subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrictions on our cross-border investment activities or our PRC subsidiary’s ability to increase their registered capital or to distribute dividends to, or obtain foreign-exchange-dominated loans from, our company, or prevent us from making distributions or paying dividends. As a result, our business operations and our ability to make distributions to you could be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, as these foreign exchange regulations and their interpretation and implementation are constantly evolving, it is unclear how these regulations, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant government authorities. We cannot predict how these regulations will affect our business operations or future strategy. In addition, if we decide to acquire a PRC domestic company, we cannot assure you that we or the owners of such company, as the case may be, will be able to obtain the necessary approvals or complete the necessary filings and registrations required by the foreign exchange regulations. This may restrict our ability to implement our acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

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Failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee share ownership plans or share option plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

In 2006, the People’s Bank of China promulgated the Administrative Measures of Foreign Exchange Matters for Individuals, which set forth the respective requirements for foreign exchange transactions by individuals (both PRC or non-PRC citizens) under either the current account or the capital account. In 2007, SAFE issued implementing rules for the Administrative Measures of Foreign Exchange Matters for Individuals, which, among other things, specified approval requirements for certain capital account transactions such as a PRC citizen’s participation in the employee share ownership plans or share option plans of an overseas publicly listed company. In 2007, also SAFE promulgated the Application Procedures of Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Employee Stock Ownership Plan or Stock Option Plan of Overseas-Listed Company, or the Stock Option Rules.

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notice on the Administration of Foreign Exchange Matters for Domestic Individuals Participating in the Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Listed Companies, or the Stock Option Notice. This Stock Option Notice replaced the previous Stock Option Rules. The Stock Option Notice simplifies the requirements and procedures for the registration of stock incentive plan participants, especially in respect of the required application documents and the absence of strict requirements on offshore and onshore custodian banks, as were stipulated in the earlier Stock Option Rules. Under these rules, for PRC resident individuals who participate in stock incentive plans of overseas publicly listed companies, which includes employee stock ownership plans, stock option plans and other incentive plans permitted by relevant laws and regulations, a PRC domestic qualified agent or the PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company must, among other things, file, on behalf of such resident, an application with SAFE or its local counterpart to obtain approval for an annual allowance with respect to the purchase of foreign exchange in connection with the stock holding or share option exercises as PRC residents may not directly use oversea funds to purchase shares or exercise share options. In addition, within three months after any substantial changes to any such stock incentive plan, including for example any changes due to merger or acquisition or changes to the domestic or overseas custodian agent, the domestic agent must update the registration with SAFE.

As our company became listed on the NYSE in May 2011, we and our PRC citizen employees who participate in an employee share ownership plan or a share option plan are subject to these regulations. If we or our PRC option holders fail to comply with these regulations, we or our PRC option holders may be subject to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions. See “Item 4.B—Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Employee Stock Options Plans.”

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We face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

The State Administration of Taxation has issued several rules and notices to tighten the scrutiny over acquisition transactions in recent years, including the Notice on Certain Corporate Income Tax Matters Related to Indirect Transfer of Properties by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises issued in February 2015 and amended in 2017, or the SAT Circular 7. Pursuant to these rules and notices, except for a few circumstances falling into the scope of the safe harbor provided by the SAT Circular 7, such as open market trading of stocks in public companies listed overseas, if a non-PRC resident enterprise indirectly transfers PRC taxable properties (i.e. properties of an establishment or a place in the PRC, real estate properties in the PRC or equity investments in a PRC tax resident enterprise) by disposing of equity interest or other similar rights in an overseas holding company, without a reasonable commercial purpose and resulting in the avoidance of PRC enterprise income tax, such indirect transfer should be deemed as a direct transfer of PRC taxable properties and gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to the PRC withholding tax at a rate of up to 10%. The SAT Circular 7 sets out several factors to be taken into consideration by tax authorities in determining whether an indirect transfer has a reasonable commercial purpose, such as whether the main value of equity interest in an overseas holding company is derived directly or indirectly from PRC taxable properties. An indirect transfer satisfying all the following criteria will be deemed to lack reasonable commercial purpose and be taxable under PRC law without considering other factors set out by the SAT Circular 7: (i) 75% or more of the equity value of the intermediary enterprise being transferred is derived directly or indirectly from the PRC taxable properties; (ii) at any time during the one-year period before the indirect transfer, 90% or more of the asset value of the intermediary enterprise (excluding cash) is comprised directly or indirectly of investments in the PRC, or 90% or more of its income is derived directly or indirectly from the PRC; (iii) the functions performed and risks assumed by the intermediary enterprise and any of its subsidiaries that directly or indirectly hold the PRC taxable properties are limited and are insufficient to prove their economic substance; and (iv) the foreign tax payable on the gain derived from the indirect transfer of the PRC taxable properties is lower than the potential PRC income tax on the direct transfer of such assets. The SAT Circular 7 also introduces an interest regime by providing that where a transferor fails to file and pay tax on time, and where a withholding agent fails to withhold the tax, interest will be charged on a daily basis. If the transferor has provided the required documents and information or has filed and paid the tax within 30 days from the date that the share transfer contract or agreement is signed, then interest shall be calculated based on the benchmark interest rate; otherwise, the benchmark interest rate plus 5% will apply. Both the foreign transferor and the transferee, and the PRC tax resident enterprise whose equity interests are being transferred may voluntarily report the transfer by submitting the documents required in the SAT Circular 7.

Although the SAT Circular 7 provides clarity in many important areas, such as reasonable commercial purpose, there are still uncertainties on the tax reporting and payment obligations with respect to future private equity financing transactions, share exchange or other transactions involving the transfer of shares in non-PRC resident companies. The PRC tax authorities have discretions under the SAT Circular 7 to make adjustments to the taxable capital gains based on the difference between the fair value of the equity interests transferred and the cost of investments. We may pursue acquisitions in the future that may involve complex corporate structures. If we are considered a nonresident enterprise under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and if the PRC tax authorities make adjustments to the taxable income of these transactions under the SAT Circular 7, our income tax expenses associated with such potential acquisitions will increase, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our use of some leased properties could be challenged by lessors, third parties or government authorities, which could materially and adversely affect our business.

We lease offices from third parties for our operations in China, the United States and Philippines. Any disputes with our lessors in respect of these leases or the leased area, or any defects in lessors’ title to the leased properties may disrupt our use of our offices, or warehouses, or increase our costs, which may in turn adversely affect our business operations. For example, certain buildings and the underlying land are not allowed to be used for industrial or commercial purposes without the authorities’ approval, and the lease of such buildings to companies like us may subject the lessor to pay premium fees to the PRC government. We cannot assure you that the lessor has obtained all or any of approvals from the relevant governmental authorities. In addition, some of our lessors have not provided us with documentation evidencing their title to the relevant leased properties. We cannot assure you that title to these properties we currently lease will not be challenged. In addition, we have not registered any of our lease agreements with the PRC governmental authorities as required by PRC law, and although failure to do so does not in itself invalidate the leases, we may not be able to defend these leases against bona fide third parties. If third parties who purport to be property owners or beneficiaries of the mortgaged properties challenge our right to use the leased properties, we may not be able to protect our leasehold interest and may be ordered to vacate the affected premises, which could in turn materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

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Risks Related to Our ADSs

If the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditors as required under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, the SEC will prohibit the trading of our ADSs. A trading prohibition for our ADSs, or the threat of a trading prohibition, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditors deprives our investors of the benefits of such inspections.

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted into law on December 18, 2020. Under the HFCA Act, if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, for three consecutive years (beginning with those we are to file in 2022), the SEC will prohibit our securities, including our ADSs, from being traded on a U.S. national securities exchange, including the NYSE, or in the over-the-counter trading market in the U.S. The process of implementing trading prohibitions pursuant to the HFCA Act will be based on a list of registered public accounting firms that the PCAOB has been unable to inspect and investigate completely as a result of a position taken by a non-U.S. government, or the Relevant Jurisdiction. The first such list was included in a release by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021, or the PCAOB December 2021 Release, including all registered public accounting firms headquartered in China and Hong Kong. The SEC will review annual reports filed with it in 2022 to determine if the auditor used for such reports was so identified by the PCAOB, and such issuers will be designated as “Commission Identified Issuers” on a list to be published by the SEC. If an issuer is a Commission Identified Issuer for three consecutive years (which will be determined after the third such annual report), the SEC will issue an order that will implement the trading prohibitions described above.

Our current independent accounting firm, Marcum Bernstein & Pinchuk LLP, whose audit report is included in this annual report on Form 20-F, is headquartered in Manhattan, New York, and was not included in the list of PCAOB Identified Firms in the PCAOB December 2021 Release, and has been inspected by the PCAOB on a regular basis with the last inspection in 2020. Our ability to retain an auditor subject to PCAOB inspection and investigation, including but not limited to inspection of the audit working papers related to us, may depend on the relevant positions of U.S. and Chinese regulators. MBP’s audit working papers related to us are located in China. With respect to audits of companies with operations in China, such as the Company, there are uncertainties about the ability of our auditor to fully cooperate with a request by the PCAOB for audit working papers in China without the approval of Chinese authorities.

In June 2021, the United States Senate passed a bill that would amend the HFCA Act to accelerate the imposition of trading prohibitions once an issuer is identified from three years to two years. In February 2022, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the America Competes Act of 2022, which includes the same amendments as the bill passed by the Senate. However, the America Competes Act includes a broader range of legislation not related to the HFCA Act in response to the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act passed by the Senate in 2021. The U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate needs to agree on amendments to these respective bills to align the legislation and pass their amended bills before the President can sign into law. It is unclear when the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives will resolve the differences in the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act and the America Competes Act of 2022 bills currently passed. If this bill amending the HFCA Act is approved by both houses of Congress and signed by the President, our securities could be subject to a trading prohibition following our filing of our annual report on Form 20-F for 2022, which will be due on May 1, 2023.

The Company moved its headquarters and corporate operations, including financial accounting leadership, to the U.S. in 2021 and retains R&D activities in China. With the move of our headquarters and financial accounting leadership to the U.S., the majority of the audit work and corresponding workpapers will move to the U.S. Accordingly, we believe that we will be able to retain an auditor that would allow us to avoid a trading prohibition for our securities under the HFCA Act. However, whether the PCAOB will be able to conduct inspections of our auditor, including but not limited to inspection of the audit working papers related to us, in the future is subject to substantial uncertainty and depends on a number of factors out of our, and our auditor’s, control. If our shares and ADSs are prohibited from trading in the United States, there is no certainty that we will be able to list on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our shares will develop outside of the United States. Such a prohibition would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs. Also, such a prohibition would significantly affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and prospects.

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The HFCA Act also imposes additional certification and disclosure requirements for Commission Identified Issuers, and these requirements will apply beginning with annual reports on Form 20-F to be filed in 2023 for Commission Identified Issuers named in the prior year. If our auditor is later determined that it is unable to be fully inspected or investigated by the PCAOB, we expect to have to comply with these disclosure requirements in our annual report on Form 20-F for 2022 to be filed in 2023. The additional requirements include a certification that the issuer is not owned or controlled by a governmental entity in the Relevant Jurisdiction, and the additional requirements for annual reports include disclosure that the issuer’s financials were audited by a firm not subject to PCAOB inspection, disclosure on governmental entities in the Relevant Jurisdiction’s ownership in and controlling financial interest in the issuer, the names of Chinese Communist Party, or CCP, members on the board of the issuer or its operating entities, and whether the issuer’s article’s include a charter of the CCP, including the text of such charter.

In addition to the issues under the HFCA Act discussed above, the PCAOB’s inability to conduct inspections in China and Hong Kong prevents it from fully evaluating the audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our ADSs and ordinary shares are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

If the market price for our ADSs falls below US$1.00 for an extended period of time, or to US$0.16 at any time, our ADSs may be delisted from the NYSE.

The NYSE notified us in the past that we were below compliance standards due to the trading price of our ADSs. Pursuant to NYSE Rule 802.01C, a company will be considered to be below compliance standards if the average closing price of a security as reported on the consolidated tape is less than US$1.00 over a consecutive 30 trading-day period. Once notified, the company must bring its share price and average share price back above US$1.00 by six months following receipt of the notification. The company can regain compliance at any time during the six-month cure period if on the last trading day of any calendar month during the cure period the company has a closing share price of at least US$1.00 and an average closing share price of at least US$1.00 over the 30 trading-day period ending on the last trading day of that month. In the event that at the expiration of the six-month cure period, both a US$1.00 closing share price on the last trading day of the cure period and a US$1.00 average closing share price over the 30 trading-day period ending on the last trading day of the cure period are not attained, the NYSE will commence suspension and delisting procedures. In addition, we understand that the NYSE has a policy to suspend trading immediately and commence delisting procedures if the market price of securities falls to US$0.16 or less.

In response to the letter from the NYSE dated July 30, 2019, we changed the ratio of ADSs to our Class A ordinary shares from the previous ADS ratio of 1 ADS to 15 Class A ordinary shares to a new ADS ratio of one ADS to 45 Class A ordinary shares, effective January 9, 2020. We received another letter from the NYSE dated April 9, 2020 that we were below compliance standards due to the trading price of our ADSs. We regained compliance with the NYSE standards because subsequent to receipt of the letter, our ADSs traded above US$1.00 over a consecutive 30 trading-day period. However, we cannot assure you that our ADSs will remain in compliance with the NYSE listing rules going forward. If our ADSs are delisted from the NYSE, the liquidity and value of an investment in our ADSs will be materially and adversely affected.

The market price for our ADSs has fluctuated and may continue to be volatile.

The market price for our ADSs has fluctuated significantly since we first listed our ADSs. Since our ADSs became listed on the NYSE on May 4, 2011, the closing prices of our ADSs have ranged from US$0.51 to US$270.15 per ADS, including retrospective adjustments for the change in the number of ordinary shares represented by each ADS that occurred on February 6, 2017 and January 9, 2020.

The market price for our ADSs may be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including the following:

regulatory developments in our industry affecting us or our competitors;
announcements of studies and reports relating to the quality of our services or those of our competitors;

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changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other companies in the SaaS industries or other internet companies;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations and changes or revisions of our expected results;
changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;
conditions or changes in the internet finance industry or the internet industry in general;
announcements by us or our competitors of new services, acquisitions, strategic relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
additions to or departures of our senior management;
fluctuations of exchange rates between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar; and
sales or perceived potential sales of additional ordinary shares or ADSs.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for internet-related companies and companies with operations in China in particular, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. The securities of some China-based companies that have listed their securities in the United States have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in the trading prices of their securities due to worsening sentiment about the Chinese economy, governmental policy and China-U.S. relations. The trading performances of these Chinese companies’ securities after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors toward companies listed in the United States that have significant operations in China, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards companies with significant Chinese operations in general, including us, regardless of whether we have conducted any inappropriate activities. Broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect our operating performance. Volatility or a lack of positive performance in our ADS price may also adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, most of whom have been granted options or other equity incentives.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

Because we are a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including: (i) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K with the SEC; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (iii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iv) the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

As a foreign private issuer, we are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we publish our results on a semi-annual basis through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the New York Stock Exchange. Press releases relating to financial results and material events are furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information, which would be made available to you, were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

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As a foreign private issuer incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we comply fully with the NYSE corporate governance listing standards.

As a foreign private issuer incorporated in the Cayman Islands and listed on the New York Stock Exchange, we are subject to the NYSE corporate governance listing standards. However, NYSE rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the NYSE corporate governance listing standards. We have followed our home country practice and are exempted from the requirements of Sections 303A.01, 303A.07(a), 303A.08 and 303A.12(a) of the NYSE Listed Company Manual, although currently we are in compliance with the requirement to have a majority of independent directors under Section 303A.01. However, if we choose to follow additional home country practices in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they would otherwise enjoy under the NYSE corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.

As discussed above, we are a foreign private issuer, and therefore, we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. The determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to us on June 30, 2022. We would lose our foreign private issuer status if, for example, more than 50% of our ordinary shares are directly or indirectly held by residents of the U.S. and we fail to meet additional requirements necessary to maintain our foreign private issuer status. If we lose our foreign private issuer status on this date, we will be required to file with the SEC periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms beginning on January 1, 2023, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We will also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we will lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements under the New York Stock Exchange listing rules. As a U.S. listed public company that is not a foreign private issuer, we will incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we will not incur as a foreign private issuer, and accounting, reporting and other expenses in order to maintain a listing on a U.S. securities exchange.

You may not have the same voting rights as the holders of our ordinary shares and may not receive voting materials in time to be able to exercise your right to vote.

Except as described in this annual report and in the deposit agreement, dated as of May 4, 2011, amendment no. 1 to the deposit agreement, dated as of February 6, 2017, and amendment no. 2 to the deposit agreement, dated as of January 9, 2020, by and among our company, Citibank, N.A., as depositary, and the holders and beneficial owners of American depositary shares, holders of our ADSs will not be able to exercise voting rights attaching to the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by our ADSs on an individual basis. Holders of our ADSs will appoint the depositary or its nominee as their representative to exercise the voting rights attaching to the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares in accordance with these instructions.

Pursuant to our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, we may convene a shareholders’ meeting upon seven calendar days’ notice. If we give timely notice to the depositary under the terms of the deposit agreement, which is 30 days’ notice, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to instruct the depositary to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs, and it is possible that you, or persons who hold their ADSs through brokers, dealers or other third parties, will not have the opportunity to exercise a right to vote. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and there may be nothing you can do if the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs are not voted as you requested. In addition, although you may directly exercise your right to vote by withdrawing the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs, you may not receive sufficient advance notice of an upcoming shareholders’ meeting to withdraw the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs to allow you to vote with respect to any specific matter.

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Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings, and you may not receive cash dividends if it is impractical to make them available to you.

We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to you in the United States unless we register both the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not make rights available to you unless both the rights and the underlying securities to be distributed to ADS holders are either registered under the Securities Act or exempt from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective and we may not be able to establish a necessary exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings.

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary may, at its discretion, decide that it is inequitable or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, the depositary may determine that it is not practicable to distribute certain property through the mail, or that the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may decide not to distribute such property to you.

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. For example, the depositary is expected to close its transfer books temporarily in connection with the cash dividend that we announced on April 30, 2018. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through the U.S. federal courts may be limited because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law, and most of our directors reside outside the United States.

We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands. Most of our directors reside outside the United States and a substantial portion of the assets of such directors are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to effect service of process within the United States upon us or these persons, or to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the Cayman Islands or in China in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors that are located outside the United States. There is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the federal or state courts of the United States (and the Cayman Islands are not a party to any treaties for the reciprocal enforcement or recognition of such judgments), a judgment obtained in such jurisdiction will be recognized and enforced in the courts of the Cayman Islands at common law, without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute, by an action commenced on the foreign judgment debt in the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, provided such judgment (a) is given by a foreign court of competent jurisdiction, (b) imposes on the judgment debtor a liability to pay a liquidated sum for which the judgment has been given, (c) is final and conclusive, (d) is not in respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty, and (e) was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands. However, the Cayman Islands courts are unlikely to enforce a judgment obtained from the U.S. courts under civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities law if such judgment is determined by the courts of the Cayman Islands to give rise to obligations to make payments that are penal or punitive in nature. Because such a determination has not yet been made by a court of the Cayman Islands, it is uncertain whether such civil liability judgments from U.S. courts would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands.

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Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, as amended and restated from time to time, and by the Companies Act (As Revised) and common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take legal action against us and our directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from English common law, which provides persuasive, but not binding, authority. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedents in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States and provides significantly less protection to investors. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in U.S. federal courts.

As a result, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests through actions against us, our management, our directors or our major shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.

Our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could adversely affect the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

Our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contain certain provisions that could limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company, including a provision that grants authority to our board directors to establish from time to time one or more series of preferred shares without action by our shareholders and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series. The provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of the opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over the prevailing market price by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transactions.

We may be a passive foreign investment company, or a PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequence to U.S. Holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares.

Depending upon the value of our ordinary shares and ADSs and the nature of our assets and income over time, we could be a PFIC for United States federal income tax purposes. A non-United States corporation will generally be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year if either (i) 75% or more of its gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income, or (ii) 50% or more of the value of its assets (determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. Passive income is generally any income that would be foreign personal holding company income under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, including dividends, interest, royalties, rents, annuities, net gains from the sale or exchange of property producing such income, net gains from commodity transactions, net foreign currency gains and income from notional principal contracts.

Based on our analysis of the value of our ordinary shares and ADSs and our estimated income, assets and activities, we believe we are not a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2021. We have been classified as a PFIC in prior years and may be classified as a PFIC in the future due to the complexity of regulations and uncertainty surrounding the facts and circumstances that determine PFIC status. If we were or are a PFIC, adverse United States federal income tax consequences could result to U.S. Holders (as defined in “Item 10.E—Additional Information—Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—General”). For any taxable year in which we are a PFIC and a U.S. Holder holds our ordinary shares or ADSs, such U.S. Holder will continue to be treated as owning stock of a PFIC even if we cease to satisfy either of the above tests for determining PFIC status in a subsequent taxable year. U.S. Holders treated as owning stock in a PFIC generally will become subject to increased U.S. federal income tax liabilities and special U.S. federal income tax reporting requirements, unless they make a timely “mark-to-market” election or, potentially, a “Qualified Electing Fund” election to mitigate some of the applicable consequences. For more information on the U.S. federal income tax consequences to a U.S. Holder that would result from our classification as a PFIC, see “Item 10.E Additional Information—Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.” Our U.S. counsel expresses no opinion with respect to our PFIC status for any taxable year.

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Item 4. Information on the Company

A. History and Development of the Company

We began our operations in China in 2002 through Beijing Qianxiang Tiancheng Technology Development Co., Ltd., or Qianxiang Tiancheng. Our current holding company, Renren Inc., was incorporated in February 2006 in the Cayman Islands under our prior name, Oak Pacific Interactive. Through a corporate restructuring in March 2006, Oak Pacific Interactive became the holding company. In December 2010, we changed our corporate name from Oak Pacific Interactive to Renren Inc. In May 2011, we completed our initial public offering and our ADSs began trading on the NYSE under the symbol “RENN.” Since our initial public offering, we acquired and/or disposed of a number of businesses, including online video sharing website, group-buying services business, consumer financing, online gaming, mobile live streaming and used automobile. See “—The OPI Transaction”, “—Sale of SNS Business”, “—The Kaixin Offering” and “—The Haitaoche Acquisition” for additional information.

We currently operate two SaaS businesses, Chime and Trucker Path. We launched our SaaS businesses in the United States in August 2016 with Chime, an all-in-one real estate solution provider. We further expanded our SaaS businesses by our acquisition of Geographic Farming, LLC, a 360° real estate marketing and media service provider, in August 2017. Geographic Farming was terminated and ceased operations in June 2020. In December 2017, we acquired 100% of Trucker Path, Inc., a transportation network company specializing in online and mobile services for the trucking industry in the United States. Trucker Path operates a large American online trucking community with over one million installs of its application on Google Play Store.

The OPI Transaction

On April 30, 2018, we announced a special cash dividend payable to all holders of our ordinary shares (including ordinary shares represented by ADSs). At the same time, we also announced that Oak Pacific Investment, then a wholly-owned subsidiary of us, would be conducting a private placement in which it would offer its ordinary shares solely to our shareholders, for which the waiver of the cash dividend would be the sole form of payment that would be accepted. We refer to the cash dividend, the private placement, and the ancillary agreements and actions as the OPI Transaction.

The OPI Transaction was undertaken to reduce the number and aggregate size of our long-term investments in order to mitigate the risk of us being deemed to be an investment company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940. At the time of the OPI Transaction, Oak Pacific Investment held one active business, which was our ZenZone advertising agency business. Oak Pacific Investment also held shares in 44 portfolio companies and interests in 6 investment funds. These portfolio companies and investment funds had an aggregate book value of US$530.6 million as of December 31, 2017, and represented the overwhelming majority of our long-term investments in terms of both book value and fair market value.

The private placement closed on June 21, 2018, and we completed the payment of the special cash dividend shortly thereafter. The one share in Oak Pacific Investment previously held by us was redeemed for no value as part of the OPI Transaction, and Oak Pacific Investment became entirely owned by the purchasers in the private placement. We no longer have any ownership interest in Oak Pacific Investment and Oak Pacific Investment is no longer consolidated in our financial statements. Immediately prior to the closing of the private placement, Oak Pacific Investment issued a note to us as part of the OPI Transaction. The principal amount of the note was US$90 million, the interest rate was 8% per year, and the term was the earlier of five years and the date upon which Oak Pacific Investment and its subsidiaries no longer hold any shares of Social Finance Inc. In March 2019, the interest rate was increased to 8.5% per year in connection with a refinancing of Oak Pacific Investment’s debt obligations. Oak Pacific Investment prepaid US$10 million to our company in December 2019, another US$4 million to our company in April 2020, and another US$27.5 million to our company in December 2020. In January 2021, Oak Pacific Investment settled the remaining outstanding amount owed to us under the note.

Sale of SNS Business

In December 2018, we disposed of all tangible and intangible assets in our SNS platform and the related business, including Renren mobile live streaming, to Beijing Infinities Interactive Media Co., Ltd. for cash consideration of US$20 million and shares in the purchaser’s parent company, Infinities Technology (Cayman) Holding Limited, with a value of US$40 million, based on an agreed-upon estimated valuation of US$700 million for the parent company.

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Oak Pacific Holdings, a company controlled by Mr. Joseph Chen, our chairman and chief executive officer, and Mr. James Jian Liu, our executive director and chief operating officer, controls one of the minority shareholders of the purchaser. This asset sale transaction was discussed and approved by the audit committee of our board of directors, which considered the background and material terms of this transaction as well as the result of a fairness analysis conducted by Duff & Phelps, LLC, and was approved by our board of directors. As required by our articles of association, this transaction was also conditional on the approval of SB Pan Pacific Corporation, an affiliate of one of our major shareholders, which approval was obtained.

The sale closed on December 29, 2018, and we classify our former SNS business under discontinued operations. We collected $6.8 million cash consideration and provided an allowance of US$12.6 million for the remaining balance in 2019. In July 2020, we received shares of Infinites Technology (Cayman) Holding Limited. The shares received were recorded as long-term investment in an amount of US$40 million as of December 31, 2021.

The Kaixin Offering

We use “Kaixin” in this annual report to refer to the entity that operates our used automobile business. Prior to April 30, 2019, “Kaixin” refers to Kaixin Auto Group, which was a wholly-owned subsidiary of us. From April 30, 2019, “Kaixin” refers to Kaixin Auto Holdings, a company listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market. Kaixin Auto Holdings was formerly CM Seven Star Acquisition Corporation, a blank check company formed for the purpose of entering into a merger, share exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, recapitalization, reorganization or other similar business combination, with one or more target businesses. Pursuant to a series of transactions that closed on April 30, 2019, we acquired a controlling interest in Kaixin Auto Holdings and Kaixin Auto Holdings acquired 100% ownership of Kaixin Auto Group. This series of transactions also raised approximately US$28.5 million for Kaixin and resulted in the separate listing of Kaixin on the Nasdaq Stock Market under the ticker symbol KXIN. We refer to this series of transactions as the “Kaixin Offering.”

As of the date of this annual report, we hold 32,765,687 ordinary shares of Kaixin. Previously, 3.3 million ordinary shares of Kaixin were held in escrow as potential indemnity for claims that may be asserted under the share exchange agreement relating to the Kaixin Offering. An additional 19.5 million ordinary shares of Kaixin were previously held in escrow as earnout shares pending Kaixin’s financial results for 2019 and 2020 and Kaixin’s stock price. In November 2020, Kaixin’s board of directors resolved to waive the satisfaction of prequalification conditions for the earnout shares discussed above. In November 2021, a total of 22.8 million shares, comprising the shares held in escrow for potential indemnity and earnout shares, were released from escrow to us.

An additional 4.7 million ordinary shares of Kaixin were reserved for issuance under an equity incentive plan in exchange for its outstanding options, which were cancelled at the closing of the Kaixin Offering. Furthermore, under the equity purchase agreements pursuant to which Kaixin has acquired majority control of its dealerships, Kaixin is obligated to make certain payments of its ordinary shares over a six-year period to sellers who have retained a minority interest in the special purpose holding entity of those dealerships. In connection with the Kaixin Offering, we agreed to bear the obligation to make these payments. In November 2021, we transferred 13,422,613 ordinary shares of Kaixin to an unrelated third party in settlement of these payments. See note 12 to the accompanying financial statements.

On March 31, 2021, we entered into a securities purchase agreement with Kaixin, pursuant to which we invested $6 million in newly designated convertible preferred shares of Kaixin. The investment closed in April 2021. The preferred shares are convertible into the Kaixin’s ordinary shares at a conversion price of $3.00, subject to customary adjustments.

The Haitaoche Acquisition

On November 3, 2020, Kaixin entered into a binding term sheet with Haitaoche pursuant to which Haitaoche will merge with a newly formed wholly-owned subsidiary of Kaixin, with Haitaoche continuing as the surviving entity and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Kaixin. On December 31, 2020, a definitive share purchase agreement was entered into between Kaixin and Haitaoche pursuant to which Kaixin agreed to issue to shareholders of Haitaoche an aggregate of 74,035,502 ordinary shares of Kaixin in exchange of 100% share capital of Haitaoche. We refer to this series of transactions as the “Haitaoche Acquisition.” Upon consummation of the Haitaoche Acquisition, Haitaoche Limited’s shareholders obtained control of Kaixin, and Kaixin ceased to be our subsidiary. The Haitaoche Acquisition was consummated on June 25, 2021.We classify our used automobile business under discontinued operations and remaining investment held in Kaixin was accounted for as equity investment as of December 31, 2021.

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Our Offices

Our principal executive offices are located at 2828 N. Central Avenue Fl 7, Phoenix, Arizona, 85004 USA. Our telephone number at this address is +1-833-258-7482. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. Our telephone number at this address is +1 345-949-8066. We also have one office in Beijing, Wuhan in central China, and one office in Manila in the Philippines.

The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding registrants that make electronic filings with the SEC using its EDGAR system. We maintain our website at https://ir.renren-inc.com/.

B.Business Overview

Overview

Our business model has been evolving significantly since our founding. At the time of our initial public offering in May 2011, we were primarily a social networking service platform. We had a number of ancillary businesses intended to monetize that platform. We gradually disposed of most of those ancillary businesses in the years that followed our initial public offering and eventually disposed of our social networking service platform entirely in December 2018. We completed the deconsolidation of Kaixin on June 25, 2021 through Kaixin’s reverse acquisition of Haitaoche Limited. Following completion of the reverse acquisition, we owned less than 50% of Kaixin’s total outstanding ordinary shares and lost control of Kaixin. Consequently, we re-evaluated our segments and have reclassified our used automobile business under Kaixin as a discontinued operation. Retrospective adjustments to the historical financial statements in 2019 and 2020 have also been made to provide a consistent basis of comparison for the financial results of operations across the period of 2019 through 2021.

We currently operate two SaaS businesses, Chime and Trucker Path. Chime offers an all-in-one real estate sales acceleration and client lifecycle management platform that allows real estate professionals to obtain leads, close transactions, and better serve and retain their clients. Trucker Path is a driver-centric online transportation management platform whose mission is to make long-haul freight transportation fast, reliable, and efficient. Trucker Path provides trip planning, navigation, load sourcing, and services to help connect qualified brokers with carriers, expand their reach, and initiate and complete transactions easily and efficiently. The majority of our revenues are generated by our SaaS businesses. Our SaaS businesses currently generate 100% of their revenue from the U.S. market.

As of December 31, 2021, we had only one reportable segment, namely the SaaS business. Our total revenues from the SaaS business increased from US$8.3 million in 2019 to US$17.5 million in 2020 and to US$31.8 million in 2021, and loss from operations in 2019, 2020 and 2021 were US$57.4 million, US$27.2 million, and US$19.5 million, respectively.

Our SaaS Businesses

Chime

We started our SaaS business with the launch of Chime, an all-in-one sales acceleration platform, in August 2016. Chime is a comprehensive SaaS platform that offers CRM, intelligent data exchange webpage service (IDX) and team management solutions and help real estate professionals launch marketing campaigns, track leads’ activities, build customer relationships, manage websites and seamlessly communicate with teams across multiple devices.

Chime allows users to import lead and contact information of potential buyers and sellers from third-party platforms onto the Chime platform. Chime can automatically categorize potential real estate transactions based on type, zip code, budget, source and other features. Chime allow individual real estate professionals, real estate teams, or brokerages to display and market properties and services, to source and engage with potential buyers and sellers, to distribute potential deals among team members, monitor deal progress, and monitor Key performance indicators to evaluate the efficiency and performance of their real estate sales activities. Chime users may leverage artificial intelligence to auto-respond to inquiries from potential buyers and sellers with customized scripted responses. Chime enables real estate professionals to keep in touch with clients by text, phone calls and emails. Chime provides IDX to real estate professionals to help them design customized websites. Chime also allows users to download property data

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from multiple property listing databases and displays those properties on their websites. Utilizing Chime’s advertising services, real estate professionals can place advertisements on third-party websites and platforms. Chime also offers mailed print advertising services to its clients.

Trucker Path

In December 2017, we acquired 100% of Trucker Path, Inc., a transportation network company specializing in online and mobile services for the trucking industry in the United States. Its core product is the Trucker Path app, a trip planning companion for truck drivers, which enables a large community of truck drivers to assist each other in updating the real-time status of relevant points-of-interest on their route, plan trips, and use navigational assistance, including turn-by-turn navigational assistance to shipping and receiving docks. Trucker Path helps truck drivers find truck stops, parking spots, weigh stations, truck washes, fuel stops, rest areas, and more. Real-time information, such as availability of parking or the cost of fuel, is provided for these points-of-interest. Over 40,000 businesses are listed as points-of-interest on Trucker Path, including hotels and restaurants, for which truck drivers can add their own reviews and information. Trucker Path also serves SMB truck fleets with its enterprise offering called Trucker Path Command, which combines the core driver app with an operator portal to enable fleet managers to dispatch, communicate, and manage their business through a single unified portal. Trucker Path also has a companion app known as Truckloads which brings truck drivers, brokers and shippers together in a single online freight marketplace. Truck drivers can search for loads and customize their search criteria by trailer type, pickup date and destination, among other things. They can also set up push notifications for loads in their area or loads that fit their most recent search criteria. Truck drivers can combine Truckloads with Trucker Path to source loads, plan routes that maximize the amount of time they spend carrying loads, and reach their destination more safely and efficiently by avoiding obstacles such as clearance, hazmat, weight limit and no truck zone restrictions. Brokers and shippers can find carriers for their loads, complete contracts, and track their loads while in transit from pickup to delivery. We also sell in-app Point of Interest and banner add advertising services to businesses that market and sell their products and services to Trucker Path users. The Trucker Path platform has over 800,000 active users and 70,000 paid subscriptions.

Sales and Marketing

We have built our Chime brand through a multitude of avenues, including:

industry trade shows;
online digital marketing;
publicity of major milestones and achievements;
collaboration with relevant partners; and
email marketing on opted in subscribers to our product updates and industry news.

Like most SaaS companies, the majority of Chime’s sales are closed by our internal sales teams. When sales inquiries come in from the marketing channels mentioned above, our sales team will book a demo with a potential customer and try to close the deal after demoing our product. During 2021, we released the Enterprise version of its product and expanded our sales team to convert enterprise customers. Enterprise customers, due to the number of seats they require, the large fees, long contract durations, and unique requirements typically require more interaction between Chime sales professionals and the customer. Multiple touches, and a longer sales cycle than Chime’s traditional SMB customer-base.

Currently, the main marketing channels for Trucker Path include online digital marketing, as well as publicity of our product milestones and industry research on various media outlets. We also employ an inside sales team, located in the Philippines and the United States, to sell our Trucker Path Command products, onboard customers, provide customer support, and convert users of our products to paid subscribers.

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Competition

For Chime, we compete with various Real Estate CRM vendors as well as a few integrated marketing-centric platforms. We also compete with other CRMs and Salesforce partners, companies who offer digital marketing solutions for realtors, as well as direct mail service vendors.

Trucker Path mainly competes with other map service providers for professional truckers and other digital load boards. We also compete with other companies that sell advertising businesses that serve the needs of truckers.

Technology

Chime has an engineering team of 125 members, including front-end and back-end developers, mobile developers, product managers and Quality Assurance personnel. We are actively releasing product updates every month based on user feedback and our team’s analysis.

Trucker Path has an engineering team of 125 members, including mobile developers, front end/back end engineers, product managers and Quality Assurance personnel. We actively release product updates on all of our products, namely Truckerpath, Truckloads, and Trucker Path Command.

Intellectual Property

Our intellectual property includes trademarks related to our brands and services, copyrights in software, patents and other intellectual property rights and licenses. We seek to protect our intellectual property assets and brand through a combination of monitoring and enforcement of trademark, patent, copyright and trade secret protection laws in the PRC and other jurisdictions, as well as through confidentiality agreements and procedures. For further details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We may not be able to prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.”

Seasonality

The sales performance of Chime has small correlation with seasonality, but it mostly fluctuates with the macro cycle of the real estate market. For Trucker Path, seasonality has a more obvious impact. Our sales are mainly driven by active users, who are primarily long-haul truck drivers. Typically transportation industry over-all is influenced by seasonality. Usually during winter months., when the U.S. and Canada experience more extreme weather, and long holidays, such as Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year, transportation demands decrease, and typically increase again with the return of Spring.

Regulation

This section summarizes the principal laws and regulations relevant to our operations in China.

Regulations on Intellectual Property Rights

China has adopted legislation governing intellectual property rights, including trademarks, patents and copyrights. China is a signatory to the major international conventions on intellectual property rights and became a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights upon its accession to the World Trade Organization in December 2001.

Patent. The Patent Law was originally adopted in 1984. To be patentable, invention or utility models must meet three conditions: novelty, inventiveness and practical applicability. The patent right is valid for a term of twenty years in the case of an invention, a term of ten years in the case of utility models and a term of fifteen years in the case of designs when the term is invented after May 31, 2021, pursuant to the provisions of the Patent Law Amendment in 2020, while the duration of patent right for a design invented before May 31, 2021 would be ten years according to the CNIPA’s reply. A third-party user must obtain consent or a proper license from the patent owner to use the patent. Otherwise, the use constitutes an infringement of patent rights. We have obtained 20 patents granted by the State Intellectual Property Office.

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Copyright. The Copyright Law was originally adopted in 1990. The Copyright Law extends copyright protection to internet activities, products disseminated over the internet and software products. In addition, there is a voluntary registration system administered by the China Copyright Protection Center. The amended Copyright Law also requires registration of a copyright pledge.

Pursuant to the relevant PRC regulations, rules and interpretations, ICP operators will be jointly liable with the infringer if they (i) participate in, assist in or abet infringing activities committed by any other person through the internet, (ii) are or should be aware of the infringing activities committed by their website users through the internet, or (iii) fail to remove infringing content or take other action to eliminate infringing consequences after receiving a warning with evidence of such infringing activities from the copyright holder. The court will determine whether an internet service provider should have known of their internet users’ infringing activities based on how obvious the infringing activities are by taking into consideration a number of factors, including (i) the information management capabilities that the provider should have based on the possibility that the services provided by it may trigger infringing acts, (ii) the degree of obviousness of the infringing content, (iii) whether it has taken the initiative to select, edit, modify or recommend the contents involved, (iv) whether it has taken positive and reasonable measures against infringing acts, and (v) whether it has set up convenient programs to receive notices of infringement and made timely and reasonable responses to the notices. Where an internet service provider has directly obtained economic benefits from any contents made available by an internet user, it shall have a higher duty of care with respect to the internet user’s act of infringement of others’ copyrights. Advertisements placed for or other benefits particularly connected with specific contents may be deemed as direct economic benefits from such contents, but general advertising fees or service fees charged by an internet service provider for its internet services will not be included. In addition, where an ICP operator is clearly aware of the infringement of certain content against another’s copyright through the internet, or fails to take measures to remove relevant contents upon receipt of the copyright holder’s notice, and as a result, it damages the public interest, the ICP operator could be ordered to stop the tortious act and be subject to other administrative penalties such as confiscation of illegal income and fines. An ICP operator is also required to retain all infringement notices for a minimum of six months and to record the content, display time and IP addresses or the domain names related to the infringement for a minimum of 60 days.

An internet service provider may be exempted from liabilities for providing links to infringing or illegal content or providing other internet services which are used by its users to infringe others’ copyright, if it does not know and does not have constructive knowledge that such content is infringing upon other parties’ rights or is illegal. However, if the legitimate owner of the content notifies the internet service provider and requests removal of the links to the infringing content, the internet service provider would be deemed to have constructive knowledge upon receipt of such notification, but would be exempted from liabilities if it removes or disconnects the links to the infringing content at the request of the legitimate owner. At the request of the alleged infringer, the internet service provider should immediately restore links to content previously disconnected upon receipt of initial non-infringing evidence.

We have adopted measures to mitigate copyright infringement risks. For example, our policy is to remove links to web pages if we know these web pages contain materials that infringe third-party rights or if we are notified by the legitimate copyright holder of the infringement with proper evidence.

Software products. In China, holders of computer software copyrights enjoy protections under the Copyright Law. Various regulations relating to the protection of software copyrights in China have promulgated, including the Copyright Law, which was originally promulgated in 1990, the Regulation for the Implementation of the Copyright Law, which originally came into effect in September 2002, and the Measures for the Registration of Computer Software Copyright, which were issued by the National Copyright Administration in 2002. Under these regulations, computer software that is independently developed and exists in a physical form is protected, and software copyright owners may license or transfer their software copyrights to others. Registration of software copyrights, exclusive licensing and transfer contracts with the Copyright Protection Center of China or its local branches is encouraged. Such registration is not mandatory under Chinese law, but can enhance the protections available to the registered copyrights holders. The Computer Software Copyright Registration Procedures, issued by the National Copyright Administration in 2002, apply to software copyright registration, license contract registration and transfer contract registration. We have registered 32 computer software copyrights in compliance with the above rules and to take advantage of the protections under them.

Trademark. The PRC Trademark Law was originally adopted in 1982. The Trademark Office under the State Administration for Industry and Commerce handles trademark registrations and grants a term of ten years for registered trademarks, plus another ten years if requested upon expiration of the first or any subsequent ten-year term. Trademark license agreements must be filed with the Trademark Office for record. We have applied with the Trademark Office to register trademarks and logos.

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Domain Names. The CNNIC issued the Implementing Rules for Domain Name Registration setting forth detailed rules for registration of domain names in 2002, which has been repealed on June 18, 2019. On August 24, 2017, the MIIT promulgated the Administrative Measures for Internet Domain Names. These measures regulate the registration of domain names, such as the first tier domain name “.cn.” In June 2019, the CNNIC issued the new version of Rules of First-Tier Domain Dispute Resolution in replacement of the former version issued in 2014, pursuant to which the CNNIC can authorize a domain name dispute resolution institution to decide disputes. We have registered domain names including xiaonei.com and chimeroi.com. In December 2013, we entered into a Registry Agreement with ICANN, which grants us the right to use the generic top level domain name “.ren”.

Regulations on Foreign Exchange

Under the Foreign Currency Administration Rules, if documents certifying the purposes of the conversion of Renminbi into foreign currency are submitted to the relevant foreign exchange conversion bank, the Renminbi will be convertible for current account items, including the distribution of dividends, interest and royalties payments, and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions. Conversion of Renminbi for capital account items, such as direct investment, loans, securities investment and repatriation of investment, however, is subject to the approval of SAFE or its local counterpart.

Under the Administration Rules for the Settlement, Sale and Payment of Foreign Exchange, which were promulgated in 1996, foreign-invested enterprises may only buy, sell and/or remit foreign currencies at banks authorized to conduct foreign exchange business after providing valid commercial documents and, in the case of capital account item transactions, obtaining approval from SAFE or its local counterpart. Capital investments by PRC entities outside of China, after obtaining the required approvals of the relevant approval authorities, such as the Ministry of Commerce and the National Development and Reform Commission or their local counterparts, are also required to register with SAFE or its local counterpart.

In February 2015, SAFE promulgated the Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving the Foreign Exchange Management Policies for Direct Investment, also known as the SAFE Circular 13, which took effect on June 1, 2015. The SAFE Circular 13 delegates the power to enforce the foreign exchange registration in connection with inbound and outbound direct investments under SAFE rules from local branches of SAFE to banks, thereby further simplifying the foreign exchange registration procedures for inbound and outbound direct investments.

In March 2015, SAFE issued the Circular on Reform of the Administrative Rules of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or the SAFE Circular 19, which became effective on June 1, 2015. In June 2016, the SAFE issued the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Regulating Policies on the Control over Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital Accounts, or the SAFE Circular 16, which revised some provisions of the SAFE Circular 19. According to the SAFE Circular 19 and the SAFE Circular 16, the flow and use of the Renminbi capital converted from registered capital denominated in foreign currency of a foreign-invested company is regulated such that Renminbi capital may not be used for business beyond its business scope or to provide loans to persons other than the foreign-invested company’s affiliates unless otherwise permitted under its business scope. Violations of the SAFE Circular 19 or the SAFE Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. Pursuant to the SAFE Circular 19 and the SAFE Circular 16, foreign-invested enterprises may either continue to follow the current payment-based foreign currency settlement system or choose to follow the “conversion-at-will” system for foreign currency settlement. Where a foreign-invested enterprise follows the conversion-at-will system for foreign currency settlement, it may convert part or all of the amount of the foreign currency in its capital account into Renminbi at any time. The converted Renminbi will be kept in a designated account labeled as settled but pending payment, and if the foreign-invested enterprise needs to make payment from such designated account, it still needs to go through the review process with its bank and provide necessary supporting documents. The SAFE Circular 19 and the SAFE Circular 16, therefore, has substantially lifted the restrictions on the usage by a foreign-invested enterprise of its Renminbi registered capital converted from foreign currencies. According to the SAFE Circular 19 and the SAFE Circular 16, such Renminbi capital may be used at the discretion of the foreign-invested enterprise and SAFE will eliminate the prior approval requirement and only examine the authenticity of the declared usage afterwards. Nevertheless, foreign-invested enterprises like our PRC subsidiaries are still not allowed to extend intercompany loans to Qianxiang Tiancheng. In addition, as the SAFE Circular 19 was promulgated recently, there remain substantial uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and implementation of this circular by relevant authorities.

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Moreover, on January 26, 2017, SAFE promulgated Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Advancing the Reform of Foreign Exchange Administration and Improving Examination of Authenticity and Compliance, or the SAFE Circular 3. The SAFE Circular 3 stipulates several control measures with respect to the outbound remittance of any profit from domestic entities to offshore entities, including (i) under the principle of genuine transaction, banks should review board resolutions, the original version of tax filing records and audited financial statements before wiring the foreign exchange profit distribution of a foreign-invested enterprise exceeding US$50,000; and (ii) domestic entities should hold income to make up previous years’ losses before remitting the profits to offshore entities. Moreover, pursuant to the SAFE Circular 3, verification on the genuineness and compliance of foreign direct investments in domestic entities has also been tightened.

In addition, on November 26, 2021, SAFE promulgated the Notice on Promulgation of the Guidelines for Regulating Transactions in the Foreign Exchange Market, which became effective on January 1, 2022, to further regulate foreign exchange market transactions.

In utilizing funds that we hold offshore, as an offshore holding company with PRC subsidiaries, we may (i) make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, (ii) establish new PRC subsidiaries and make capital contributions to these new PRC subsidiaries, (iii) make loans to our PRC subsidiaries or the VIE and its subsidiaries, or (iv) acquire offshore entities with business operations in China in offshore transactions. However, most of these uses are subject to PRC regulations and approvals. For example:

capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, whether existing or newly established ones, must be approved by the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterparts;
loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries, each of which is a foreign-invested enterprise, to finance their activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with SAFE or its local branches; and
loans by us to the VIE and its subsidiaries, which are domestic PRC entities, must be approved by the National Development and Reform Commission and must also be registered with SAFE or its local branches.

Regulations on Foreign Investment

Investment activities in the PRC by foreign investors are principally governed by the Guidance Catalog of Industries for Foreign Investment promulgated and as amended from time to time by the MOFCOM and the NDRC, or the Catalog. In June 2017, the MOFCOM and the NDRC promulgated the Catalog, or the 2017 Revision, which became effective in July 2017. Industries listed in the Catalog are divided into two parts: encouraged category, and the special management measures for the entry of foreign investment, which is further divided into the restricted category and prohibited category. The negative list of the 2017 Revision has been replaced by the Special Administrative Measures for Access to Foreign Investment, or the Negative List in December 2021, which became effective in January 2022. Industries not listed in the Catalog are generally deemed to be in a fourth “permitted” category and are generally open to foreign investment unless specifically restricted by other PRC regulations. The Negative List, in a unified manner, lists the restrictive measures for the entry of foreign investment. Furthermore, foreign investors are not allowed to invest in companies in industries in the prohibited category. For the industries that are not listed in the Negative List, the restrictive measures for the entry of foreign investment shall not apply in principle, and establishment of wholly foreign-owned enterprises in such industries is generally allowed.

In March 2019, the Foreign Investment Law was enacted by the NPC, which became effective in January 2020. Upon its enactment, it will replace the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments.

Unlike its first draft which was published in 2015, the Foreign Investment Law does not specifically expand the definition of “foreign investment” to include entities established through a variable interest entity structure but contains a catch-all provision under the definition of “foreign investment” which includes investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council.

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Moreover, Measures for Reporting of Information on Foreign Investment promulgated by the MOFCOM in December 2019 established a foreign investment information reporting system. Foreign investors or foreign-funded enterprises shall submit the investment information to competent governmental departments for commerce through the enterprise registration system and the enterprise credit information publicity system. The contents and scope of foreign investment information to be reported shall be determined under the principle of necessity. Where foreign-investors or foreign-invested enterprises are found to be non-compliant with these information reporting obligations, competent department for commerce shall order corrections within a specified period; if such corrections are not made in time, a penalty of not less than RMB100,000 yet not more than RMB500,000 shall be imposed. Aside from the reporting system for foreign investment information, the Foreign Investment Law shall also establish a security examination mechanism for foreign investment and conducts security review of foreign investment that affects or may affect national security. The decision made upon the security examination in accordance with the law shall be final.

We will be subject to the Foreign Investment Law if our contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng are defined or regarded as a form of foreign investment in the future.

Regulations on Dividend Distribution

Wholly foreign-owned enterprises in the PRC may pay dividends only out of their accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, these wholly foreign-owned enterprises are required to set aside at least 10% of their respective accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds, until the aggregate amount of such fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. At the discretion of these wholly foreign-owned enterprises, they may allocate a portion of their after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to staff welfare and bonus funds. These reserve funds and staff welfare and bonus funds are not distributable as cash dividends.

As of December 31, 2021, the registered capital of our wholly foreign-owned subsidiary Qianxiang Shiji was US$180.0 million, with paid-in capital of US$175.0 million. Qianxiang Shiji has not made any profits to date, and thus is not subject to the statutory reserve fund requirement. Qianxiang Shiji has not and will not be able to pay dividends to our offshore entities until it generates accumulated profits and meets the requirements for statutory reserve funds. As of December 31, 2021, Qianxiang Shiji had an accumulated deficit of approximately US$49.5 million in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations.

Regulations on Offshore Investment by PRC Residents

In July 2014, SAFE promulgated the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control of Domestic Residents’ Overseas Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles, or the SAFE Circular 37, which replaced the former Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents to Engage in Financing and Inbound Investment via Overseas Special Purpose Vehicles, or the SAFE Circular 75, promulgated by SAFE in 2005.

The SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, which is referred to in the SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” The SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as an increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC residents, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material events. In the event that a PRC resident holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to complete the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiaries. Furthermore, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls.

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Regulations on Employee Stock Options Plans

In 2007, SAFE issued implementing rules for the Administrative Measures of Foreign Exchange Matters for Individuals, which, among other things, specified approval requirements for certain capital account transactions, such as a PRC citizen’s participation in employee stock ownership plans or share option plans of an overseas publicly listed company and it was further amended on May 29, 2016. In 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notice on the Administration of Foreign Exchange Matters for Domestic Individuals Participating in the Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Listed Companies, or the Stock Option Notice, which simplifies the requirements and procedures for the registration of stock incentive plan participants, especially in respect of the required application documents and the absence of strict requirements on offshore and onshore custodian banks.

Under these rules, for PRC resident individuals who participate in stock incentive plans of overseas publicly listed companies, which includes employee stock ownership plans, stock option plans and other incentive plans permitted by relevant laws and regulations, a PRC domestic qualified agent or the PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company must, among other things, file on behalf of such resident an application with SAFE or its local counterpart to obtain approval for an annual allowance with respect to the purchase of foreign exchange in connection with the stock holding or share option exercises, as PRC residents may not directly use oversea funds to purchase shares or exercise share options. In addition, within three months after any substantial changes to any such stock incentive plan, including any changes due to a merger or acquisition or changes to the domestic or overseas custodian agent, the domestic agent must update the registration with SAFE.

Under the Foreign Currency Administration Rules, as amended in 2008, the foreign exchange proceeds of domestic entities and individuals can be remitted into China or deposited abroad, subject to the terms and conditions to be issued by SAFE. However, the implementing rules in respect of depositing the foreign exchange proceeds abroad have not been issued by SAFE. The foreign exchange proceeds from the sales of shares can be converted into Renminbi or transferred to such individuals’ foreign exchange savings account after the proceeds have been remitted back to the special foreign exchange account opened at the PRC domestic bank. If share options are exercised in a cashless exercise, the PRC domestic individuals are required to remit the proceeds to special foreign exchange accounts.

In addition, the State Administration of Taxation has issued circulars concerning employee share options. Under these circulars, our employees working in China who exercise share options will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our PRC subsidiaries have obligations to file documents related to employee share options with relevant tax authorities and withhold the individual income taxes of employees who exercise their share options.

Labor Laws and Social Insurance

Pursuant to the PRC Labor Law and the PRC Labor Contract Law, employers must execute written labor contracts with full-time employees. All employers must compensate their employees with wages equal to at least the local minimum wage standards. All employers are required to establish a system for labor safety and sanitation, strictly abide by state rules and standards and provide employees with workplace safety training. In addition, employers in China are obliged to provide employees with welfare schemes covering pension insurance, unemployment insurance, maternity insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance and housing funds. Violations of the PRC Labor Contract Law and the PRC Labor Law may result in the imposition of fines and other administrative liabilities. Criminal liability may arise for serious violations. To comply with these laws and regulations, we have caused all of our full-time employees to enter into labor contracts and provide our employees with the proper welfare and employment benefits.

Regulations on Concentration in Merger and Acquisition Transactions

In August 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies jointly adopted the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, which were amended in 2009. The M&A Rule established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. These rules require, among other things, that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor will take control of a PRC domestic enterprise or a foreign company with substantial PRC operations, if certain thresholds under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings issued by the State Council in 2008 are triggered.

44

C.Organizational Structure

The following diagram illustrates our principal subsidiaries and the VIE and its subsidiaries as of the date of this annual report:

Graphic

Note:

(1)

Qianxiang Tiancheng is 99% owned by Ms. Jing Yang, who is the wife of Mr. Joseph Chen, our founder, chairman and chief executive officer, and 1% owned by Mr. James Jian Liu, our director and chief operating officer. We effectively control Qianxiang Tiancheng as well as its subsidiaries through contractual arrangements. See “Item 4.C Organizational Structure—Contractual Arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng” for more information.

(2)

Each of Trucker Path, Inc. and Chime Technologies, Inc. is 77.78% owned by Renren U.S. Holdco, Inc. and Renren Giantly Limited, respectively, with the remaining shares owned by an officer, who acquired such shares upon exercise of stock options and/or vesting of restricted stock units.

45

Contractual Arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng

Renren Inc., or Renren, is not an operating company in China but a Cayman Islands holding company conducting a significant portion of our operations through our subsidiaries, primarily in the United States. Applicable PRC laws and regulations restrict foreign ownership of companies that provide value-added telecommunications services in China. Historically, we provided value-added telecommunication services in China as part of our social networking services and related live streaming business, which had been disposed of since December 2018. In addition, there are other regulatory restrictions on foreign investments into a variety of industries in China into which we had invested through the holding of minority ownership of certain domestic companies.

To comply with these foreign ownership restrictions, our wholly owned subsidiary Qianxiang Shiji Technology Development (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or Qianxiang Shiji, has entered into series of contractual arrangements with Beijing Qianxiang Tiancheng Technology Development Co., Ltd., or Qianxiang Tiancheng, and its shareholders. These agreements enable us to:

exercise effective control over Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries through powers of attorney and business operations agreements;
receive substantially all of the economic benefits of Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries in the form of service and license fees in consideration for the technical services provided, and the intellectual property rights licensed, by Qianxiang Shiji; and
have an exclusive option to purchase all of the equity interests in Qianxiang Tiancheng when and to the extent permitted under PRC laws, regulations and legal procedures.

The following is a summary of the currently effective contracts between our subsidiary Qianxiang Shiji, Qianxiang Tiancheng, and the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng. These contracts provide us with the power to direct the activities that most significantly affect the economic performance of Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries and enable us to receive substantially all the economic benefits from them.

Business Operations Agreements. Pursuant to a business operations agreement between Qianxiang Shiji, Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders, Qianxiang Tiancheng shall appoint the candidates designated by Qianxiang Shiji as the executive director or directors, general manager, chief financial officer and any other senior officers of Qianxiang Tiancheng. Qianxiang Tiancheng agrees to follow the proposal provided by Qianxiang Shiji from time to time relating to employment, daily operation and financial management. Without Qianxiang Shiji’s prior written consent, Qianxiang Tiancheng shall not conduct any transaction that may materially affect its assets, obligations, rights or operations, including but not limited to, (i) incurrence or assumption of any indebtedness, (ii) sale or purchase of any assets or rights, (iii) incurrence of any encumbrance on any of its assets or intellectual property rights in favor of a third party, or (iv) transfer of any rights or obligations under this agreements to a third party. The term of this agreement has been extended automatically for ten years starting from December 23, 2020. Qianxiang Shiji may terminate the agreement at any time by providing a 30-day advance written notice to Qianxiang Tiancheng and to each of its shareholders. Neither Qianxiang Tiancheng nor any of its shareholders may terminate this agreement during the term or the extension of the term, if applicable.
Powers of Attorney. Pursuant to powers of attorney, the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng each irrevocably appointed our executive director and chief operating officer, Mr. James Jian Liu (the person designated by Qianxiang Shiji) as their attorney-in-fact to vote on their behalf on all matters of Qianxiang Tiancheng that requires shareholder approval under PRC laws and regulations as well as Qianxiang Tiancheng’s articles of association. The appointment of Mr. Liu is conditional upon his being the employee and the designated person of Qianxiang Shiji. Each power of attorney will remain in effect from December 22, 2020 to December 21, 2030, unless and until the earlier of the following events: (i) Mr. Liu loses his position in Qianxiang Shiji or Qianxiang Shiji issues a written notice to dismiss or replace Mr. Liu; and (ii) the business operations agreement between Qianxiang Shiji, Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders terminates or expires.

46

Spousal Consent Letters. Pursuant to spousal consent letters, the spouse of each of the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng acknowledged that certain equity interests of Qianxiang Tiancheng held by and registered in the name of his/her spouse will be disposed of pursuant to the equity option agreements. These spouses understand that such equity interests are held by their respective spouse on behalf of Qianxiang Shiji, and they will not take any action to interfere with the disposition of such equity interests, including, without limitation, claiming that such equity interests constitute communal property of marriage.
Equity Option Agreements. Pursuant to equity option agreements between Qianxiang Shiji and each of the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng, Qianxiang Tiancheng’s shareholders granted Qianxiang Shiji or its designated representative(s) an exclusive option to purchase, to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of their equity interests in Qianxiang Tiancheng in consideration of the loans extended to Qianxiang Tiancheng’s shareholders under the loan agreements mentioned below. In addition, Qianxiang Shiji has the option to acquire the equity interests of Qianxiang Tiancheng at the lowest price then permitted by PRC law in consideration of the cancellation of all or part of the loans extended to the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng under the loan agreements. Qianxiang Shiji or its designated representative(s) have sole discretion as to when to exercise such options, either in part or in full. Qianxiang Shiji or its designated representative(s) is entitled to exercise the options for unlimited times until all of the equity interests of Qianxiang Tiancheng have been acquired, and can be freely transferred, in whole or in part, to any third party. Without Qianxiang Shiji’s consent, Qianxiang Tiancheng’s shareholders shall not transfer, donate, pledge, or otherwise dispose their equity shareholdings in Qianxiang Tiancheng in any way. The equity option agreement will remain in full force and effect until the earlier of: (i) the date on which all of the equity interests in Qianxiang Tiancheng have been acquired by Qianxiang Shiji or its designated representative(s); or (ii) the receipt of the 30-day advance written termination notice issued by Qianxiang Shiji to the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng. The key factors for our decision to exercise the option are whether the current regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the internet business and advertising business will be relaxed in the future, which is rather unpredictable at the moment. If such restrictions are relaxed, we will, through Qianxiang Shiji, exercise the option and purchase all or part of the equity interests in Qianxiang Tiancheng.
Exclusive Technical Service Agreements. Pursuant to an exclusive technical service agreement between Qianxiang Shiji and Qianxiang Tiancheng, Qianxiang Shiji has the exclusive right to provide certain technical services, including maintenance of servers, development, updating and upgrading of web user application software, e-commerce technical services, to Qianxiang Tiancheng. Without Qianxiang Shiji’s prior written consent, Qianxiang Tiancheng shall not engage any third party to provide any of the technical services under this agreement. In addition, Qianxiang Shiji exclusively owns all intellectual property rights resulting from the performance of this agreement. Qianxiang Tiancheng agrees to pay a service fee to Qianxiang Shiji at a specific fee rate proposed by Qianxiang Shiji. Qianxiang Shiji shall have the right to adjust at any time the fee rate based on the quantity, difficulty and urgency of the services it provides to Qianxiang Tiancheng and other factors. The term of this agreement has been extended automatically for ten years starting from December 23, 2020. Qianxiang Shiji can terminate the agreement at any time by providing a 30-day prior written notice. Qianxiang Tiancheng is not permitted to terminate this agreement prior to the expiration of the term, unless Qianxiang Shiji fails to comply with any of its obligations under this agreement and such breach makes Qianxiang Shiji unable to continue to perform this agreement.
Intellectual Property Right License Agreements. Pursuant to an intellectual property right license agreement between Qianxiang Shiji and Qianxiang Tiancheng, Qianxiang Shiji grants a non-exclusive and non-transferable license, without sublicense rights, to Qianxiang Tiancheng to use certain of the domain names, registered trademarks and non-patent technology (software) owned by Qianxiang Shiji. Qianxiang Tiancheng may only use the intellectual property rights in its own business operations. The amount, payment method and classification of the license fees under this agreement shall be determined based on the precondition that they facilitate Qianxiang Shiji’s securing of all preferential treatments under the PRC tax policies and shall be agreed by both Qianxiang Shiji and Qianxiang Tiancheng considering, among other things, the following factors: (i) the number of users purchasing Qianxiang Tiancheng’s products or receiving Qianxiang Tiancheng’s services; and (ii) the types and quantity of the intellectual property rights, which are specified under this agreement, actually used by Qianxiang Tiancheng for selling products or providing services to its users. On December 1, 2015, Qianxiang Shiji and Qianxiang Tiancheng entered into a supplementary agreement to extend the terms of this agreement for ten years, pursuant to which the current term expires on December 1, 2025. Qianxiang Shiji may terminate this agreement at any time by providing a 30-day prior written notice. Any party may terminate this agreement immediately with written notice to the other party if the other party materially breaches the relevant agreement and fails to cure its breach within 30 days from the date it receives the written notice specifying its breach from the non-breaching party. The parties will review this agreement every three months and determine if any amendment is needed.

47

Equity Interest Pledge Agreements. Pursuant to equity interest pledge agreements between Qianxiang Shiji and each of the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng, the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng pledge all of their equity interests in Qianxiang Tiancheng to Qianxiang Shiji, to guarantee Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders’ performance of their obligations under, where applicable, (i) the loan agreements, (ii) the exclusive technical service agreement, (iii) the intellectual property right license agreement and (iv) the equity option agreements. If Qianxiang Tiancheng and/or any of its shareholders breach their contractual obligations under the aforesaid agreements, Qianxiang Shiji, as the pledgee, will be entitled to certain rights and entitlements, including the priority in receiving payments by the evaluation or proceeds from the auction or sale of whole or part of the pledged equity interests of Qianxiang Tiancheng in accordance with legal procedures. Without Qianxiang Shiji’s prior written consent, shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng shall not transfer or assign the pledged equity interests, or incur or allow any encumbrance that would jeopardize Qianxiang Shiji’s interests. During the term of this agreement, Qianxiang Shiji is entitled to collect all of the dividends or other distributions, if any, derived from the pledged equity interests. The equity interest pledge has become effective and will expire on the earlier of: (i) the date on which Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders have fully performed their obligations under the loan agreements, the exclusive technical service agreement, the intellectual property right license agreement and the equity option agreements; (ii) the enforcement of the pledge by Qianxiang Shiji pursuant to the terms and conditions under this agreement to fully satisfy its rights under such agreements; or (iii) the completion of the transfer of all equity interests of Qianxiang Tiancheng by the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng to another individual or legal entity designated by Qianxiang Shiji pursuant to the equity option agreement and no equity interest of Qianxiang Tiancheng is held by such shareholders. The equity interest pledge agreements have been registered with the relevant authorities.
Loan Agreements. Under loan agreements between Qianxiang Shiji and each of the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng, Qianxiang Shiji made interest-free loans in an aggregate amount of RMB10.0 million (US$1.4 million) to the shareholders of Qianxiang Tiancheng exclusively for the purpose of the initial capitalization and the subsequent financial needs of Qianxiang Tiancheng. The loans can only be repaid with the proceeds derived from the sale of all of the equity interests in Qianxiang Tiancheng to Qianxiang Shiji or its designated representatives pursuant to the equity option agreements. The term of the loans has been automatically extended for ten years starting from December 23, 2020.

As a result of the above contractual agreements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders, Renren becomes the primary beneficiary of Qianxiang Tiancheng for accounting purposes and treat them as our consolidated entities under U.S. GAAP. Neither we nor our investors own any equity ownership in, direct foreign investment in, or control as equity owner of Qianxiang Tiancheng as a result of Qianxiang Shiji’s contractual agreements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders. As a result, holders of the ADSs are not purchasing equity interest in Qianxiang Tiancheng but instead are purchasing equity interest in Renren, a Cayman Islands holding company whose consolidated financial results include those of Qianxiang Tiancheng under U.S. GAAP.

Our corporate structure is subject to risks associated with our contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders. The contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over Qianxiang Tiancheng and we may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements. In addition, our contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders have not been tested in a court of law in the PRC and foreign investors may never be allowed to hold equity interests in Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries under PRC laws and regulations. Chinese regulatory authorities could in the future disallow these agreements, which would likely affect our operations in China conducted through Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries. If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business do not comply with PRC laws and regulations, or if these regulations or their interpretations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries, Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of Qianxiang Tiancheng and our company as a whole.

48

There are also substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules regarding the status of the rights of our Cayman Islands holding company with respect to its contractual arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng and its shareholders. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. If we or any of Qianxiang Tiancheng and its subsidiaries is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. For a detailed description of the risks associated with our corporate structure and the contractual arrangements that support our corporate structure, see “Item 3.D—Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”

D.Property, Plant, and Equipment

Our principal executive offices are located at 2828 N. Central Avenue Fl 7, Phoenix, Arizona, 85004 USA, where we lease approximately 1,415 square meters of office space. We also lease approximately 804 square meters in Beijing and approximately 911 square meters of office space in Wuhan in central China. We lease our premises from unrelated third parties under non-cancelable operating lease agreements.

Some of the lessors of our leased premises in China do not have valid title to such premises or proper authorization from the title owner to sublease such premises. For further details, see “Item 3.D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Our use of some leased properties could be challenged by lessors, third parties or government authorities, which could materially and adversely affect our business.”

We also lease approximately 765 square meters of office space in the Philippines for our SaaS business team.

Our servers are primarily hosted at internet data centers owned by major domestic internet data center providers. The hosting services agreements typically have terms of one year. We believe that we will be able to obtain adequate facilities, principally through leasing, to accommodate our future expansion plans.

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Item 3.D. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F.

A.Operating Results

Overview

Our business model has been evolving continuously in response to changes in internet culture and competitive pressures in China. At the time of our initial public offering in May 2011, we were primarily a social networking service platform, and we had a number of ancillary businesses that were intended to monetize that platform. We gradually disposed of most of those ancillary businesses in the years that followed our initial public offering.

49

Currently, we operate two SaaS businesses, Chime and Trucker Path. Chime offers an all-in-one real estate sales acceleration and client lifecycle management platform that allows real estate professionals to obtain more leads, close more transactions, and retain their clients. Trucker Path is a driver-centric online transportation management platform whose mission is to make freight transportation fast, reliable, and efficient. Trucker Path provides rip planning, navigation, freight sourcing, and services to help connect qualified brokers and carriers to expand their reach and initiate and complete transactions easily and efficiently. The majority of our revenues are generated by our SaaS businesses. Our SaaS businesses currently generate 100% of their revenue from the U.S. market.

As of December 31, 2021, we had only one reportable segment, namely the SaaS business. Our total revenues from the SaaS business increased from US$8.3 million in 2019 to US$17.5 million in 2020 and to US$31.8 million in 2021, and loss from continuing operations in 2019, 2020 and 2021 were US$38.4 million, US$16.8 million, and US$103.4 million, respectively.

Impact of COVID-19 on Our Operations and Financial Performance

Our results of operations have been, and could continue to be adversely, and may be materially, affected, to the extent that COVID-19 or any other epidemic that impacts the global economy. Any potential impact to our results will depend on, to a large extent, future developments and new information that may emerge regarding the duration and severity of COVID-19 and the actions taken by government authorities and other entities to contain COVID-19 or manage its impact, including the effectiveness of the vaccine programs and extent of mandates that restrict travel and the ability to conduct business, almost all of which are beyond our control.

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our long-term results remains uncertain, and we are closely monitoring its impact on us. There are still significant uncertainties of COVID-19’s future impact, as we are unable to predict the likelihood, extent and severity of additional variants and treatments for such variants, the actions that may be taken by government authorities including lockdowns and government stimulus measures, all of which are beyond our control. As a result, certain of our current balance sheet estimates and assumptions that require significant judgment and are subject to variability that could change materially in future periods. See also “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Our business may be materially adversely affected by COVID-19 or other epidemics that impact the global economy or the economies of the markets we serve and operate in.” The major factors affecting our results of operations and financial condition are discussed below.

Revenues

We derive substantially all of our revenues from SaaS subscription services, advertising services and other related services. We recognize our revenues over the life of the SaaS subscriptions and net of business taxes or value added tax, as applicable. Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers. Deferred revenue mainly consists of payments received from customers related to unsatisfied performance obligations for SaaS subscription services. Our total deferred revenue was US$0.6 million and US$2.6 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively, most of which is expected to be recognized as revenue within one year.

The following table sets forth the principal components of our revenues, both as dollar amounts and as percentages of our total revenues from our continuing operations, for the periods presented.

Years ended December 31,

 

     

2019

     

2020

     

2021

 

 

(in thousands of US$, except for percentages)

     

US$

     

%  

     

US$

     

%  

     

US$

     

%  

Revenues:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

SaaS revenue

 

8,261

 

54.8

%  

 

17,519

 

96.8

%  

 

31,849

 

98.9

%

Other services

 

6,824

 

45.2

%  

 

587

 

3.2

%  

 

370

 

1.1

%

Total revenues

15,085

 

100.0

%  

18,106

 

100.0

%  

32,219

 

100.0

%

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SaaS revenue

Our SaaS revenue consists primarily of revenue generated from the subscription services and advertising services provided by Chime and Trucker Path.

Other Services

Prior to January 1, 2020, our revenues from other services consist primarily of live streaming revenue from Woxiu, which we disposed of in June 2019. We did not record this disposition as a discontinued business because Woxiu’s assets and revenues were not material and we did not consider this disposition as a strategy shift. Since January 1, 2020, our revenues from other services consisted primarily of revenue from the provision of back-office services to a related party.

Cost of Revenues

The following table sets forth the principal components of our cost of revenues, both as dollar amounts and as percentages of our total revenues from our continuing operations, for the periods presented.

Years ended December 31,

 

     

2019

     

2020

     

2021

 

 

(in thousands of US$, except for percentages)

     

US$

     

%  

     

US$

     

%  

     

US$

     

%  

Cost of Revenues:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

SaaS business

 

1,743

 

11.6

%  

 

3,353

 

18.5

%  

 

6,826

 

21.2

%

Other services

 

4,975

 

33.0

%  

 

98

 

0.5

%  

 

13

 

0.04

%

Total cost of revenues

6,718

 

44.6

%  

3,451

 

19.0

%  

6,839

 

21.2

%

SaaS business

For SaaS business, our cost of revenues includes cloud hosting services, and fees incurred to provide advertising services to our customers.

Other services

Prior to January 1, 2020, cost of revenues for other services consists primarily of commissions that were paid to mobile live streaming performers and Woxiu performers. Such commissions were calculated as a percentage of the revenues we generate from the sales of virtual items that fans of the performers have purchased. Since January 1, 2020, the cost of revenues for other services consists primarily of service fees for providing database hosting.

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Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses consist of selling and marketing expenses, research and development expenses, and general and administrative expenses. The following table sets forth our operating expenses for continuing operations, both as dollar amounts and as percentages of our total revenues, for the periods indicated.

Years ended December 31,

 

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

 

(in thousands of US$, except for percentages)

 

    

US$

    

%  

    

US$

    

%  

    

US$

    

%  

 

Operating expenses (income):

Selling and marketing

 

10,780

 

71.4

%  

8,293

 

45.8

%  

13,998

 

43.4

%

Research and development

 

22,791

 

151.1

%  

11,347

 

62.7

%  

10,721

 

33.3

%

General and administrative

 

10,089

 

66.9

%  

22,242

 

122.8

%  

20,130

 

62.5

%

Bad debt provision of prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

418

 

2.8

%  

 

%  

 

%

Provision of amount due from a related party

 

12,408

 

82.2

%  

 

%  

 

%

Impairment of goodwill

 

9,288

 

61.6

%  

 

%  

 

%

Total operating expenses

65,774

 

436.0

%  

41,882

 

231.3

%  

44,849

 

139.2

%

Our selling and marketing expenses, research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses include share-based compensation expenses.

Selling and marketing expenses

Selling and marketing expenses consist primarily of salaries, benefits and commissions for our sales and marketing personnel, online advertising, and other advertising and promotion expenses. Our selling and marketing expenses may increase in the near term if we increase our promotion expenses for our SaaS businesses.

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and benefits for research and development personnel. Our research and development expenses may increase in the near term on an absolute basis as we intend to hire additional research and development personnel to develop new features for our various SaaS services, invest in improved classification, use data to improve the customer experience, and further improve our technology infrastructure.

General and administrative expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and benefits for our general and administrative personnel, fees and expenses for third-party professional services and facilities expenses. Our general and administrative expenses may increase in the future on an absolute basis as our SaaS businesses grow.

Discontinued Operations

On June 25, 2021, we completed the deconsolidation of Kaixin through Kaixin’s reverse acquisition of Haitaoche, in which Kaixin issued an aggregate of 74,035,502 ordinary shares to acquire 100% of the share capital of Haitaoche. We refer to this transaction as the Haitaoche Acquisition throughout this annual report. Following the Haitaoche Acquisition, we owned less than 50% of Kaixin’s total outstanding ordinary shares and lost control of Kaixin. Following the Haitaoche Acquisition, the management of Haitaoche became the management of Kaixin and obtained the right to elect a majority of Kaixin’s board of directors. Haitaoche was not a related party of our company before the Haitaoche Acquisition.

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Under GAAP, loss of control of a subsidiary is deemed to have occurred when, among other things, a parent company owns less than a majority of the outstanding common stock of the subsidiary, and is unable to unilaterally control the subsidiary through other means such as having the ability or being able to obtain the ability to elect a majority of the subsidiary’s board of directors. We determined that all of those loss of control factors were present with respect to Kaixin on June 25, 2021. Accordingly, we deconsolidated Kaixin’s financial statements and results of operations from ours, effective June 25, 2021, in accordance with ASC 810-10-40-4(c), Consolidation.

For periods on and after June 25, 2021, we are accounting for our retained noncontrolling investment in Kaixin under the equity method of accounting. We held 32.8 million ordinary shares of Kaixin, or approximately 19.2% of Kaixin outstanding ordinary shares as of December 31, 2021 and thus became a related party of Kaixin.

In connection with the deconsolidation of Kaixin and in accordance with ASC 810, we recorded a gain on deconsolidation of US$123.7 million related to the remeasurement of our retained noncontrolling interest in 33.3% of Kaixin ordinary shares from cost to fair value based on the share price as of June 25, 2021. The gain is included in the income from discontinued operation, net of tax, in the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Kaixin’s results of operations for the period from January 1, 2021 through June 24, 2021, the date immediately preceding the deconsolidation of Kaixin, and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, are included in the consolidated results of operations as net gain/loss from the discontinued operations, net of nil taxes, for those respective periods, after intercompany eliminations, as applicable.

The deconsolidation of Kaixin has allowed us to concentrate our operations and management attention on our SaaS businesses which have higher gross margins and require much less investment in physical infrastructure to achieve growth.

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Results of Operations

The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of operations for the years indicated.

Years ended December 31,

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

(in thousands of US$)

Revenues

 

  

 

  

 

  

SaaS revenue

 

8,261

 

17,519

 

31,849

Other services

 

6,824

 

587

 

370

Total revenues

 

15,085

 

18,106

 

32,219

Cost of revenues:

 

  

 

  

 

  

SaaS business

 

1,743

 

3,353

 

6,826

Other services

 

4,975

 

98

 

13

Total cost of revenues

 

6,718

 

3,451

 

6,839

Gross profit

 

8,367

 

14,655

 

25,380

Operating expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

Selling and marketing

 

10,780

 

8,293

 

13,998

Research and development

 

22,791

 

11,347

 

10,721

General and administrative

 

10,089

 

22,242

 

20,130

Bad debt provision of prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

418

 

 

Provision of amount due from a related party

 

12,408

 

 

Impairment of goodwill

 

9,288

 

 

Total operating expenses

 

65,774

 

41,882

 

44,849

Loss from operations

 

(57,407)

 

(27,227)

 

(19,469)

Other income

 

1,523

 

3,543

 

792

Fair value change gain (loss) of contingent consideration

 

20,662

 

(1,027)

 

1,115

Impairment of available-for-sale investment

(2,000)

Impairment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values

 

 

 

(1,526)

Provision of restricted cash

(9,284)

Provision of amount due from the deconsolidated subsidiary

(3,943)

Interest income

 

8,776

 

8,079

 

238

Interest expenses

 

(566)

 

(303)

 

(51)

Loss related to contingent liability settlement

 

 

 

(13,246)

Total other income (expenses), net

 

28,395

 

10,292

 

(25,905)

Loss before provision of income tax and (loss) earnings in equity method in investments and noncontrolling interest, net of tax

 

(29,012)

 

(16,935)

 

(45,374)

Income tax (expenses) benefits

 

(1,944)

 

65

 

969

Loss before (loss) in equity method investments and noncontrolling interest, net of tax

 

(30,956)

 

(16,870)

 

(44,405)

Impairment on and (Loss) earnings in equity method investments, net of tax

 

(7,464)

 

70

 

(59,001)

Loss from continuing operations

 

(38,420)

 

(16,800)

 

(103,406)

Our business has evolved rapidly in recent years. We believe that historical period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be indicative of future performance.

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2020

Except where specified otherwise, the following commentary compares results for the year ended December 31, 2021 to results for the corresponding period in 2020, excluding those of Kaixin. Effective June 25, 2021, Kaixin was deconsolidated and we account for our retained noncontrolling investment in Kaixin under the equity method of accounting.

Revenues. Our revenues increased by 77.9% from US$18.1 million in 2020 to US$32.2 million in 2021. This increase was primarily due to the increase in revenue from our SaaS businesses.

54

SaaS business. SaaS revenues increased by 81.8% from US$17.5 million in 2020 to US$31.8 million in 2021. The increase was primarily due to the expansion of the SaaS businesses, which mainly include the subscription services and advertising services provided by Chime and Trucker Path.
Other Services. Our other services revenues decreased by 37.0% from US$0.6 million in 2020 to US$0.4 million in 2021. The decrease was primarily due to the lower revenue from a related party for which Renren has historically provided back-office professional services as such related party transitions to a third-party service provider.

Cost of revenues. Our cost of revenues increased by 98.2% from US$3.5 million in 2020 to US$6.8 million in 2021. This increase was primarily due to the increase of software expenses directly related to the generation of revenue and cloud hosting services to provide a better user experience alongside with the expansion of the SaaS business.

Operating expenses. Our operating expenses increased by 7.1% from US$41.9 million in 2020 to US$44.8 million in 2021, primarily due to the increase of selling and marketing expenses for business expansion.

Selling and marketing. Our selling and marketing expenses increased by 68.8% from US$8.3 million in 2020 to US$14.0 million in 2021. This increase was primarily due to the increase in headcount and personnel-related expenses and the increase of advertising and promotion fees.
Research and development. Our research and development expenses slightly decreased by 5.5% from US$11.3 million in 2020 to US$10.7 million in 2021. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease of rental fee, depreciation and amortization related to the research and development, partially offset by the increase in headcount and personnel-related expenses.
General and administrative. Our general and administrative expenses decreased by 9.5% from US$22.2 million in 2020 to US$20.1 million in 2021. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease in share-based compensation expenses.

Other income. We had other income of US$0.8 million in 2021, compared with other income of US$3.5 million in 2020. The fluctuation was mainly due to the non-recurrence of payables written off recorded in 2020.

Fair value change of contingent consideration. Our fair value change of contingent consideration was a gain of US$1.1 million in 2021, compared with a loss of US$1.0 million in 2020. The fluctuation was mainly due to the decrease of the trading price of Kaixin’s ordinary shares, which are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market.

Interest income. Our interest income was US$0.2 million in 2021, compared with US$8.1 million in 2020. Our interest income was primarily interest from the note issued to us by Oak Pacific Investment in the OPI Transaction. The fluctuation was mainly because Oak Pacific Investment repaid the principal and the associated interests of US$68.0 million from the note issued to us by Oak Pacific Investment in the OPI Transaction in January 2021.

Interest expenses. Our interest expense was US$0.05 million in 2021, compared with US$0.3 million in 2020. The interest expense in 2020 and 2021 was primarily due to interest on loans that we borrowed from commercial banks. The fluctuation was mainly due to the decrease in the loan balance.

Impairment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values. Our impairment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values was US$1.5 million in 2021, compared with nil in 2020. The impairment loss in 2021 was due to the impairment of preferred shares of Kaixin.

Provision of restricted cash. Our provision of restricted cash was US$9.3 million in 2021. The restricted cash balance as of December 31, 2021, represents $9.3 million cash deposits pledged as security for debt borrowing of Kaixin. Based on our assessment of the collectability of the guarantee, we recorded a provision of US$9.3 million based on our conclusion that the possibility of Kaixin paying the loans when due is remote and therefore, the company will be required to extend the guarantee or pay the debt on Kaixin’s behalf.

55

Provision of amount due from the deconsolidated subsidiary. Our provision of amount due from the deconsolidated subsidiary was US$3.9 million in 2021. We provided full provision of amount due from Kaixin as we concluded the likelihood of the balance being recovered is remote.

Impairment on and (Loss) earnings in equity method investments, net of tax. Our loss in equity method investments was US$59.0 million in 2021, compared with earnings in equity method investments was US$0.1 million in 2020. The fluctuation was mainly due to our share of loss of US$63.4 million in our equity interest in Kaixin, partially offset by our share of gain of US$4.3 million in our equity interest in Beijing Fenghou Tianyuan Investment.

Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2019

Revenues. Our revenues increased by 20.0% from US$15.1 million in 2019 to US$18.1 million in 2020. This increase was primarily due to the increase in revenue from SaaS business.

SaaS business. SaaS revenues increased by 112.1% from US$8.3 million in 2019 to US$17.5 million in 2020. The increase was primarily due to the expansion of the SaaS businesses, which mainly include the subscription services and advertising services provided by Chime and Trucker Path.
Other Services. Our other services revenues decreased by 91.4% from US$6.8 million in 2019 to US$0.6 million in 2020. The decrease was primarily due to the disposal of the Woxiu business in June 2019.

Cost of revenues. Our cost of revenues decreased by 48.6% from US$6.7 million in 2019 to US$3.5 million in 2020. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in our cost of revenues for other services, which decreased by 98.0% from US$5.0 million in 2019 to US$0.1 million in 2020. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease of commission cost we paid to our Woxiu performers.

Operating expenses. Our operating expenses decreased by 36.3% from US$65.8 million in 2019 to US$41.9 million in 2020, primarily due to a US$9.3 million impairment of goodwill and a US$12.4 million provision of amount due from a related party in 2019.

Selling and marketing. Our selling and marketing expenses decreased by 23.1% from US$10.8 million in 2019 to US$8.3 million in 2020. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in headcount and personnel-related expenses.
Research and development. Our research and development expenses decreased by 50.2% from US$22.8 million in 2019 to US$11.3 million in 2020. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in headcount and personnel-related expenses.
General and administrative. Our general and administrative expenses increased by 120.5% from US$10.1 million in 2019 to US$22.2 million in 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase in share-based compensation expenses.
Impairment of goodwill. Our impairment of goodwill was nil in 2020 compared with US$9.3 million in 2019, primarily due to impairment losses on goodwill arising from our acquisition of Trucker Path, Inc.
Provision of amount due from a related party. We had bad debt provision of amounts due from a related party of US$12.4 million in 2019 as the counter party failed to make payments under the agreed extended repayment plan. We had no bad debt provision of amount due from a related party in 2020.

Other income. We had other income of US$3.5 million in 2020, compared with other income of US$1.5 million in 2019.

Fair value change of contingent consideration. Our fair value change of contingent consideration was a loss of US$1.0 million in 2020, compared with a gain of US$20.7 million in 2019. The fluctuation was mainly due to the change in estimates of the expected shares to be delivered to settle the contingent consideration to acquired dealerships of Kaixin and change in Kaixin’s share price.

56

Interest income. Our interest income was US$8.1 million in 2020, compared with US$8.8 million in 2019. Our interest income was primarily interest from the note issued to us by Oak Pacific Investment in the OPI Transaction.

Interest expenses. Our interest expense was US$0.3 million in 2020, compared with US$0.6 million in 2019. The interest expense in 2019 and 2020 was primarily due to interest on loans that we borrowed from commercial banks.

Impairment of available-for-sale investment. Our impairment of long-term investment was nil in 2020, compared with US$2 million in 2019. We recorded US$2 million of available-for-sale investment for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Impairment on and (Loss) earnings in equity method investments, net of tax. Our earnings in equity method investments were US$0.1 million in 2020, compared with a loss of US$7.5 million in 2019. The fluctuation was mainly due to the impairment of US$6.2 million in 2019.

Segment Operations

In December 2020, we reached a resolution to dispose of Kaixin Auto Holdings and treated Kaixin Auto Holdings as discontinued operations. As a result, we reevaluated our segments and concluded that we had only one reportable segment as of December 31, 2021, our SaaS segment.

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash Flows and Working Capital

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities in the normal course of business. As of December 31, 2021, we had net current assets (current assets less current liabilities) of US$41.2 million, and an accumulated deficit of US$620.4 million. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we incurred loss from continuing operations amounting to US$103.4 million and negative cash flows from continuing operating activities of US$19.0 million.

Our ability to continue as a going concern is dependent on our ability to generate cash flows from operations, and our ability to arrange adequate financing arrangements. In January 2021, we received $68.0 million from Oak Pacific Investment, a related party, as payment of the remaining outstanding amount under a promissory note issued as part of the OPI Transaction in June 2018. We had cash and cash equivalents of US$65.2 million, excluding restricted cash, as of December 31, 2021. The cash reserve is expected to meet our operating needs for at least the next twelve months from the date of this annual report. However, if negative cash flow from operating activities persists in the long run, our cash resources may become insufficient to satisfy on-going cash requirements.

Our material cash requirements included investment in growing our enterprise presence in Chime, in research and development and to add features to Trucker Path to allow us to extend the services offered to drivers and to serve the needs of other industry participants including brokers, fleets, and dispatchers.

57

The following table sets forth a summary of our cash flows for the periods indicated:

Years ended December 31,

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

(in thousands of US$)

Net cash used in operating activities from continuing operations

(28,402)

(11,723)

(18,978)

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities from discontinuing operations

(4,745)

(3,878)

870

Net cash provided by investing activities from continuing operations

17,660

32,802

58,038

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities from discontinuing operations

1,223

Net cash used in financing activities from continuing operations

(19,465)

(1,461)

(11,176)

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities from discontinuing operations

(6,328)

3,917

267

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents from continuing operations

(30,207)

19,618

27,884

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents from discontinued operations

(9,850)

39

1,137

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year from continuing operations

43,745

14,733

34,087

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year from discontinued operations

13,768

3,189

3,162

Effect of exchange rate changes from continuing operations

1,195

(264)

(1,023)

Effect of exchange rate changes from discontinued operations

(729)

(66)

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year from continuing operations

14,733

34,087

65,247

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year from discontinued operations

3,189

3,162

Operating Activities

Net cash used in operating activities from continuing operations amounted to US$19.0 million in 2021, compared to net loss from continuing operations of US$103.4 million. The principal change in operating assets and liabilities accounting for the difference between our net loss and our net cash used in operating activities in 2021 was an increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets of US$4.1 million, an increase in accounts receivable of US$1.1 million, an increase in amount due from subsidiary held for sale of US$1.6 million, and partially offset by the increase in deferred revenue and accrued expenses and other current liabilities of US$3.7 million. The principal adjustments to reconcile our net loss to our net cash used in operating activities was impairment on and (loss) earnings in equity method investments of US$59.0 million, loss related to contingent liability settlement of US$13.2 million, share-based compensation expenses of US$8.5 million and the provision for amount due from a deconsolidated subsidiary of US$3.9 million.

Net cash used in operating activities from continuing operations amounted to US$11.7 million in 2020, compared to a net loss from continuing operations of US$16.8 million. The principal change in operating assets and liabilities accounting for the difference between our net loss and our net cash used in operating activities in 2020 was a net increase in amounts due from related parties of US$7.9 million, a decrease in accrued expenses and other current liabilities of US$3.1 million, and an increase in amount due from subsidiary held for sale of US$2.3 million. The principal adjustments to reconcile our net loss to our net cash used in operating activities was share-based compensation expenses of US$15.3 million.

Net cash used in operating activities from continuing operations amounted to US$28.4 million in 2019, compared to a net loss from continuing operations of US$38.4 million. The principal change in operating assets and liabilities accounting for the difference between our net loss and our net cash used in operating activities in 2019 was a decrease in accrued expenses and other current liabilities of US$7.9 million, a net increase in amounts due from related parties of US$6.5 million and a decrease in operating lease liabilities of US$2.4 million and partially offset by the decrease in prepaid expenses and other current assets of 4.0 million. The principal adjustments to reconcile our net loss to our net cash used in operating activities were an impairment on goodwill of US$9.3 million, provision for amount due from a related party of US$12.4 million, and share-based compensation expenses of US$8.6 million, impairment on and (loss) earnings in equity method investments of US$7.5million, and partially offset by gain on fair value change of contingent consideration of US$20.7 million.

58

Investing Activities

Net cash provided by investing activities from continuing operations amounted to US$58.0 million in 2021, due mainly to proceeds of US$68.0 million from repayment of the note issued by OPI, partially offset by payments to purchase preferred shares of Kaixin of US$6.0 million and net cash outflow from deconsolidation of Kaixin of US$4.3 million.

Net cash provided by investing activities from continuing operations amounted to US$32.8 million in 2020, due mainly to proceeds of US$31.5 million from repayment of the note issued by OPI.

Net cash provided by investing activities from continuing operations amounted to US$17.7 million in 2019, due mainly to proceeds from repayment of the note issued by OPI of US$9.6 million, proceeds from disposition of our SNS business of US$6.1 million, and proceeds from repayment of third-party loans of US$4.1 million, partially offset by payments to purchase of short-term investments of US$1.4 million.

Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities from continuing operations was US$11.2 million in 2021, due mainly to repayment of borrowings of US$11.5 million.

Net cash used in financing activities from continuing operations was US$1.5 million in 2020, due mainly to repayment of borrowings of US$4.8 million, partially offset by proceeds from short-term and long-term debt borrowings of US$3.3 million.

Net cash used in financing activities from continuing operations was US$19.5 million in 2019, due mainly to US$31.0 million used to repay borrowings, partially offset by proceeds from short-term borrowings of US$10.5 million.

Contractual Obligations

The following table sets forth our contractual obligations from the continuing operations including interest payment, if applicable, as of December 31, 2021:

    

Payment Due by Period

Less than 1

More than 5

    

Total

    

year

    

1-3 years

    

4-5 years

    

years

 

(in thousands of US$)

Operating lease obligations(1)

 

769

 

706

 

63

 

 

Loan obligations(2)

 

1,585

 

1,585

 

 

 

Total

 

2,354

 

2,291

 

63

 

 

Notes:

(1)

We lease facilities and offices under non-cancelable operating lease agreements.

(2)

In 2020, we entered into long-term borrowings for a total of US$1.6 million, which will mature on April 22, 2022, and was classified as short-term borrowing.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We issued a standby letter of credit to the benefit of East West Bank that guarantees Kaixin’s payment of approximately US$9.3 million to East West Bank, which is an uncollateralized guarantee carried over from our deconsolidation of Kaixin and is subject to periodic renewals. Except for this standby letter of credit, we have not entered into any financial guarantees or other commitments to guarantee the payment obligations of any third parties. We do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to such entity. We do not have any variable interest in any unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to us or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.

59

Capital Expenditures

We made capital expenditures of US$0.4 million and US$0.2 million and US$0.1 million in 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. In the past, our capital expenditures were primarily used to purchase servers and other equipment for our business.

Our Holding Company Structure and Contractual Arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng

Please refer to “Item 4.C—Information on the Company—Organizational Structure—Contractual Arrangements with Qianxiang Tiancheng.”

Financial Information relating to the VIE

Set forth below are the condensed consolidating schedule showing the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the Parent, Non-VIE Subsidiaries and the VIE and its subsidiaries, eliminating adjustments and consolidated totals (in thousands of US$) as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021. In the tables below, the column headings correspond to the following entities:

“Parent” refers to Renren Inc., our Cayman Islands holding company;
“Non-VIE Subsidiaries” refer to the sum of (i) Qianxiang Shiji Technology Development (Beijing) Co., Ltd., our wholly-owned PRC subsidiary, and other subsidiaries of Renren Inc; and
“VIE and its subsidiaries” refer to the sum of (i) Qianxiang Tiancheng Technology Development Co., Ltd., (ii) Qianxiang Wanjing Technology Development Co., Ltd., (iii) Shandong Jieying Huaqi Automobile Service Co., Ltd.

Selected Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations Data

    

    For the year ended December 31, 2019

    

    For the year ended December 31, 2020

    

    For the year ended December 31, 2021

VIE and its

Non-VIE

VIE and its

Non-VIE

VIE and its

Non-VIE

Parent

subsidiaries

Subsidiaries

Inter-company

Group

Parent

subsidiaries

Subsidiaries

Inter-company

Group

Parent

subsidiaries

Subsidiaries

Inter-company

Group

  

Company

  

Consolidated

  

Consolidated

  

elimination

  

Consolidation

  

Company

  

Consolidated

  

Consolidated

  

elimination

  

Consolidation

  

Company

  

Consolidated

  

Consolidated

  

elimination

  

Consolidation

In thousands of US dollars

In thousands of US dollars

In thousands of US dollars

Revenue

$

$

15,923

$

16,318

$

(17,156)

$

15,085

$

$

7,274

$

20,654

$

(9,822)

$

18,106

$

$

10,654

$

33,745

$

(12,180)

$

32,219

Cost of revenue

$

$

635

$

8,441

$

(2,358)

$

6,718

$

$

97

$

5,442

$

(2,088)

$

3,451

$

$

13

$

6,826

$

$

6,839

Gross profit

$

$

15,288

$

7,877

$

(14,798)

$

8,367

$

$

7,177

$

15,212

$

(7,734)

$

14,655

$

$

10,641

$

26,919

$

(12,180)

$

25,380

Operating expenses

$

9,672

$

32,595

$

34,050

$

(10,543)

$

65,774

$

16,568

$

10,510

$

20,733

$

(5,929)

$

41,882

$

14,394

$

12,121

$

39,788

$

(21,454)

$

44,849

Loss from operations

$

(9,672)

$

(17,307)

$

(26,173)

$

(4,255)

$

(57,407)

$

(16,568)

$

(3,333)

$

(5,521)

$

(1,805)

$

(27,227)

$

(14,394)

$

(1,480)

$

(12,869)

$

9,274

$

(19,469)

Share of loss from subsidiaries

$

(69,009)

$

$

$

69,009

$

$

(6,314)

$

$

$

6,314

$

$

(17,128)

$

$

$

17,128

$

Net loss

$

(51,097)

$

18,133

$

(91,946)

$

17,422

$

(107,488)

$

(19,220)

$

16,112

$

(21,640)

$

2,628

$

(22,120)

$

13,663

$

1,434

$

(22,856)

$

17,124

$

9,365

Less: net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests

$

$

$

31

$

(56,422)

$

(56,391)

$

$

$

$

(2,900)

$

(2,900)

$

$

10

$

(4,308)

$

$

(4,298)

Net (loss) income attributable to Renren's shareholders

$

(51,097)

$

18,133

$

(91,977)

$

73,844

$

(51,097)

$

(19,220)

$

16,112

$

(21,640)

$

5,528

$

(19,220)

$

13,663

$

1,424

$

(18,548)

$

17,124

$

13,663

Selected Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets Data

    

    As of December 31, 2020

    

    As of December 31, 2021

VIE and its

Non-VIE

VIE and its

Non-VIE

Parent

subsidiaries

Subsidiaries

Inter-company

Group

Parent

subsidiaries

Subsidiaries

Inter-company

Group

    

Company

    

Consolidated

    

Consolidated

    

elimination

    

Consolidation

    

Company

    

Consolidated

    

Consolidated

    

elimination

    

Consolidation

In thousands of US dollars

In thousands of US dollars

Amount due from non-VIE

$

483,661

$

43,900

$

$

(527,562)

$

$

520,436

$

44,386

$

$

(564,822)

$

Amount due from VIE

$

$

$

274,602

$

(274,602)

$

$

$

$

297,448

$

(297,448)

$

Amount due from Renren

$

$

33,393

$

17,774

$

(51,167)

$

$

$

33,393

$

16,486

$

(49,879)

$

Total current assets

$

435,485

$

47,282

$

31,114

$

(424,934)

$

88,947

$

481,435

$

20,725

$

91,306

$

(519,209)

$

74,257

Total non-current assets

$

67,985

$

5,333

$

6,608

$

44,800

$

124,726

$

36,594

$

46,339

$

322,896

$

(309,911)

$

95,918

Total assets

$

503,470

$

52,615

$

37,722

$

(380,134)

$

213,673

$

518,029

$

67,064

$

414,202

$

(829,120)

$

170,175

Amount due to VIE

$

33,393

$

$

43,900

$

(77,293)

$

$

33,393

$

$

44,386

$

(77,779)

$

Amount due to non-VIE

$

17,774

$

274,602

$

$

(292,376)

$

$

16,486

$

297,448

$

$

(313,934)

$

Amount due to Renren

$

$

$

483,661

$

(483,661)

$

$

$

$

520,436

$

(520,436)

$

Total current liabilities

$

13,974

$

10,749

$

868

$

55,512

$

81,103

$

1,732

$

11,857

$

19,297

$

214

$

33,100

Deficit of Investments in subsidiaries and VIEs

$

382,687

$

$

$

(382,687)

$