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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 5, 2022
Registration No. 333-  
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
CVR PARTNERS, LP
CVR NITROGEN FINANCE CORPORATION
(and the subsidiaries identified below in the Table of Additional Registrant Guarantors)
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
56-2677689
Delaware
 
45-2714410
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
2277 Plaza Drive, Suite 500
Sugar Land, Texas 77479
(281) 207-3200
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Melissa M. Buhrig
Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
2277 Plaza Drive, Suite 500
Sugar Land, Texas 77479
(281) 207-3200
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copy to:
Clinton W. Rancher
Eileen S. Boyce
Baker Botts L.L.P.
910 Louisiana Street
Houston, Texas 77002
(713) 229-1234
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer ☒
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.

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Table of Additional Registrant Guarantors
The additional registrants listed below may guarantee the Debt Securities:
Exact name of additional registrant guarantor as specified in its charter*
State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization
I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.
Coffeyville Resources Nitrogen Fertilizers, LLC
Delaware
20-0465889
CVR Nitrogen, LP
Delaware
45-2714747
CVR Nitrogen GP, LLC
Delaware
45-2714410
CVR Nitrogen Holdings, LLC
Delaware
81-2685118
East Dubuque Nitrogen Fertilizers, LLC
Delaware
36-3536929
*
The address and telephone number of each additional registrant guarantor’s principal executive office is 2277 Plaza Drive, Suite 500 Sugar Land, Texas 77479, telephone (281) 207-3200. The agent for service for each additional registrant guarantor is Melissa M. Buhrig, Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, CVR GP, LLC, 2277 Plaza Drive, Suite 500, Sugar Land, Texas 77479, telephone (281) 207-3200.
The Registrants hereby amend this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrants shall file a further amendment that specifically states that the Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. Securities may not be sold pursuant to this prospectus until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
PROSPECTUS
Subject to completion, dated August 5, 2022

CVR Partners, LP
Common Units
Preferred Units
Rights
Warrants
Partnership Securities
CVR Partners, LP
CVR Nitrogen Finance Corporation
Debt Securities
Guarantees of Debt Securities
We may offer and sell from time to time, together or separately, in one or more offerings, any combination of the securities listed above. The securities we may offer may be convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for other securities. CVR Nitrogen Finance Corporation may act as co-issuer of the debt securities and other direct or indirect subsidiaries of CVR Partners, LP may guarantee the debt securities. We refer to the common units, preferred units, rights, warrants, partnership securities and debt securities and any related guarantees collectively as the “securities.” The aggregate initial offering price of all securities sold by us under this prospectus will not exceed $250,000,000.
In addition, the selling unitholder named in this prospectus may offer and sell from time to time, in one or more offerings, up to 3,892,000 common units. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common units by the selling unitholder.
We may offer and sell these securities, and the selling unitholder may offer and sell common units, from time to time in amounts, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions and other factors at the time of the offerings. We or the selling unitholder may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to one or more purchasers, on a continuous or delayed basis. This prospectus provides you with a general description of these securities and the general manner in which we or the selling unitholder will offer and sell the securities. Each time we or the selling unitholder offer and sell securities under this prospectus, we or the selling unitholder will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering and the securities being offered. A prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.
Our common units are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “UAN.” On August 4, 2022, the last reported sale price for our common units was $118.16 per unit.
Investing in our securities involves risks. Limited partnerships are inherently different from corporations. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained on page 3 herein and in any applicable prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
The date of this prospectus is    , 2022


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this process, we may offer and sell up to $250,000,000 in total aggregate offering price from time to time, together or separately, in one or more offerings, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. In addition, the selling unitholder may offer and sell from time to time, in one or more offerings, up to 3,892,000 of our common units.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of us and the securities offered under this prospectus. Each time we offer to sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering and the securities being offered. Because the selling unitholder may be deemed to be an “underwriter” under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), each time the selling unitholder sells any common units pursuant to this prospectus, such selling unitholder may be required to provide you with this prospectus and, in certain cases, a prospectus supplement containing specific information about the selling unitholder and the terms of the common units being offered. A prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in that prospectus supplement. You should read carefully this prospectus, the related exhibits filed with the SEC, any prospectus supplement and the additional information described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by reference to the actual documents. For additional information about our business, operations and financial results, please read the documents incorporated by reference herein under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, all references in this prospectus to (i) “CVR Partners,” the “Partnership,” “we,” “us,” or “our” relate to CVR Partners, LP and include our subsidiaries, including CVR Nitrogen Finance Corporation, (ii) “our general partner” relate to CVR GP, LLC, an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of CVR Energy, Inc., (iii) “CVR Energy” relate to CVR Energy, Inc. and its subsidiaries other than CVR Partners and our subsidiaries and (iv) “Finance Corp.” or “co-issuer” relate to CVR Nitrogen Finance Corporation.
Neither we nor the selling unitholder have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any written communication prepared by us or on our behalf. We and the selling unitholder take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the cover page of this prospectus or that the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document incorporated by reference. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus and any prospectus supplement constitute an offer to sell only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.
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ABOUT CVR PARTNERS
CVR Partners is a Delaware limited partnership formed by CVR Energy to own, operate and grow its nitrogen fertilizer business. CVR Partners produces nitrogen fertilizer products at two manufacturing facilities, one located in Coffeyville, Kansas operated by our wholly owned subsidiary, Coffeyville Resources Nitrogen Fertilizers, LLC, and one located in East Dubuque, Illinois operated by our wholly owned subsidiary, East Dubuque Nitrogen Fertilizers, LLC. Both facilities manufacture ammonia and are able to further upgrade such ammonia to other nitrogen fertilizer products, principally urea ammonium nitrate (“UAN”). Nitrogen fertilizer is used by farmers to improve the yield and quality of their crops, primarily corn and wheat. The Partnership’s products are sold on a wholesale basis in the United States of America.
Our common units representing limited partnership interests (“common units”) are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “UAN.”
Our principal executive offices are located at 2277 Plaza Drive, Suite 500, Sugar Land, Texas 77479, and our telephone number is (281) 207-3200. Our website address is www.cvrpartners.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus. For further discussion of the material elements of our business, please refer to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent reports we file with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
ABOUT THE SUBSIDIARY GUARANTORS
Our subsidiaries may jointly and severally, fully and unconditionally, guarantee our payment obligations under any series of debt securities offered by this prospectus. Financial information concerning our guarantor subsidiaries and non-guarantor subsidiaries, if any, is included in our consolidated financial statements filed as a part of our periodic reports filed pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), to the extent required by the rules and regulations of the SEC.
Additional information concerning our subsidiaries and us is included in reports and other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information.”
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves significant risks. Before making a decision whether to invest in our securities, you should consider the risks described below and those described under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequently filed periodic and current reports that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and those risk factors that may be included in any applicable prospectus supplement. These risks are not the only risks that we face. This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Please read “Forward-Looking Statements.” Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described elsewhere in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. If any of these risks occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
The tax treatment of publicly traded partnerships or an investment in our units could be subject to potential legislative, judicial or administrative changes and differing interpretations of applicable law, possibly on a retroactive basis.
The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of publicly traded partnerships, including us, or an investment in our units may be modified by administrative, legislative or judicial changes or differing interpretations at any time. From time to time, the President and members of the U.S. Congress propose and consider substantive changes to the existing federal income tax laws that affect publicly traded partnerships.
Any modification to the U.S. federal income tax laws and interpretations could make it more difficult or impossible to meet the exception for us to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. One recent proposal was contained in the Biden Administration’s budget proposal released on March 28, 2022, which would repeal the application of the qualifying income exception to partnerships with income and gains from activities relating to fossil fuels for taxable years beginning after 2027. We are unable to predict whether any such changes will ultimately be enacted, but it is possible that a change in law could affect us and may, if enacted, be applied retroactively. Any such changes could negatively impact the value of an investment in our units.
On January 24, 2017, the U.S. Department of the Treasury issued final regulations (the “Final Regulations”) regarding qualifying income under Section 7704(d)(1)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), which relates to the qualifying income exception upon which we rely for partnership tax treatment. The Final Regulations apply to income earned in a taxable year beginning on or after January 19, 2017. The Final Regulations include a “reserved” paragraph for fertilizer, which the U.S. Department of the Treasury plans to address in future proposed and final Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code. The Final Regulations provide for a ten-year transition period during which certain taxpayers that either obtained a favorable private letter ruling or treated income under a reasonable interpretation of the statute or prior proposed regulations as qualifying income may continue to treat such income as qualifying income. We have obtained favorable private letter rulings from the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) in the past as to what constitutes “qualifying income” within the meaning of Section 7704(d)(1)(E) of the Code and we expect to rely upon these private letter rulings for purposes of the ten-year transition rule contained in the Final Regulations. Thus, at this time and through the transition period, we believe that the Final Regulations will not significantly impact the amount of our gross income that we are able to treat as qualifying income. Our ability to meet the qualifying income exception following the transition period will depend on whether further guidance is issued and what that guidance provides.
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the statements incorporated by reference herein include forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. All statements other than statements of historical fact, including without limitation, statements regarding future operations, financial position, estimated revenues and losses, growth, capital projects, stock or unit repurchases, impacts of legal proceedings, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. The words “could,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “expect,” “may,” “continue,” “predict,” “potential,” “project,” and similar terms and phrases are intended to identify forward-looking statements.
Although we believe our assumptions concerning future events are reasonable, a number of risks, uncertainties, and other factors could cause actual results and trends to differ materially from those projected or forward-looking. Forward-looking statements, as well as certain risks, contingencies or uncertainties that may impact our forward-looking statements, include but are not limited to the following:
our ability to generate distributable cash or make cash distributions on our common units, including reserves and future uses of cash;
the ability of our general partner to modify or revoke our distribution policy at any time;
the volatile nature of our business and the variable nature of our distributions;
the severity, magnitude, duration, and impact of the novel coronavirus 2019 and any variants thereof (collectively, “COVID-19”) pandemic and of businesses’ and governments’ responses to such pandemic on our operations, personnel, commercial activity, and supply and demand across our and our customers’ and suppliers’ businesses;
changes in market conditions and market volatility arising from the COVID-19 pandemic or inflation, including fertilizer, natural gas, and other commodity prices, and the impact of such changes on our operating results and financial position;
the cyclical and seasonal nature of our business;
the impact of weather on our business, including our ability to produce, market, sell, transport or deliver fertilizer products profitably or at all, and on commodity supply and/or pricing;
the dependence of our operations on a few third-party suppliers, including providers of transportation services, and equipment;
our reliance on, or our ability to procure economically or at all, pet coke we purchase from CVR Energy and other third-party suppliers;
our reliance on the natural gas, electricity, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur processing, compressed dry air and other products that we purchase from third parties;
the supply, availability, and prices of essential raw materials and the effects of inflation thereupon;
our production levels, including the risk of a material decline in those levels, including our ability to upgrade ammonia to UAN;
product pricing, including contracted sales and our ability to realize market prices, in full or at all;
accidents or other unscheduled shutdowns or interruptions affecting our facilities, machinery, or equipment, or those of our suppliers or customers;
potential operating hazards from accidents, fire, severe weather, tornadoes, floods or other natural disasters;
our ability to obtain, retain, or renew permits, licenses and authorizations to operate our business;
competition in the nitrogen fertilizer business and foreign wheat and coarse grain production, including impacts thereto as a result of farm planting acreage, domestic and global supply and demand, and domestic or international duties tariffs or similar costs;
capital expenditures;
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existing and future laws, rulings and regulations, including but not limited to those relating to the environment, climate change, and/or the transportation or production of hazardous chemicals like ammonia, including potential liabilities or capital requirements arising from such laws, rulings, or regulations;
Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) issues, including but not limited to, compliance with ESG-related recommendations or directives and risks or impacts relating thereto, whether from regulators, rating agencies, lenders, investors, litigants, customers, vendors, the public or others;
alternative energy or fuel sources and impacts on corn prices (ethanol), and the end-use and application of fertilizers;
risks of terrorism, cybersecurity attacks, the security of chemical manufacturing facilities and other matters beyond our control;
political disturbances, geopolitical instability and tensions, and associated changes in global trade policies and economic sanctions, including, but not limited to, in connection with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 and any ongoing conflicts in the region;
our lack of asset diversification;
our dependence on significant customers and the creditworthiness and performance by counterparties;
our potential loss of transportation cost advantage over our competitors;
risks associated with third party operation of or control over important facilities necessary for operation of our nitrogen fertilizer facilities;
the volatile nature of ammonia, potential liability for accidents involving ammonia including damage or injury to persons, property, the environment or human health and increased costs related to the transport or production of ammonia;
our potential inability to successfully implement our business strategies, including the completion of significant capital programs or projects;
our reliance on CVR Energy’s senior management team and conflicts of interest they may face operating each of CVR Partners and CVR Energy;
control of our general partner by CVR Energy;
our ability to continue to license the technology used in our operations;
the potential inability to successfully implement our business strategies at all or on time and within our anticipated budgets, including significant capital programs or projects and turnarounds at our fertilizer facilities;
restrictions in our debt agreements;
asset impairments and impacts thereof;
asset useful life;
realizable inventory value;
the number of investors willing to hold or acquire our common units;
our ability to issue securities or obtain financing;
changes in tax and other law, regulations and policies;
ability to qualify for and receive the benefit of 45Q tax credits;
changes in our treatment as a partnership for U.S. federal income or state tax purposes;
rulings, judgments or settlements in litigation, tax or other legal or regulatory matters;
instability and volatility in the capital, credit and commodities markets and in the global economy, including due to the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict;
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competition with CVR Energy and its affiliates;
transactions and/or conflicts with CVR Energy’s controlling shareholder;
the value of payouts under our equity and non-equity incentive plans; and
our ability to recover under our insurance policies for damages or losses in full or at all.
Additional important risks, uncertainties and other factors are described in “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, which is incorporated by reference herein.
We caution you not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus only speak as of the date of this prospectus. Neither we nor the selling unitholder undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that occur after the date of this prospectus, or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except to the extent required by law.
All forward-looking statements, expressed or implied, included in this prospectus are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement. This cautionary statement should also be considered in connection with any subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements that we or persons acting on our behalf may issue. We urge you to carefully review and consider the disclosures made in this prospectus and our reports filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference herein that attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information.”
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless we inform you otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we anticipate using any net proceeds we receive from the sale of our securities offered by this prospectus for general partnership purposes. These purposes may include, but are not limited to:
working capital;
capital expenditures;
acquisitions; and
the repayment, refinancing, redemption or repurchase of indebtedness or other securities.
Any specific allocation of the net proceeds we receive from an offering of securities to a specific purpose will be determined at the time of the offering and will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Pending any specific application, we may initially invest funds in short-term marketable securities.
We will not receive any of the proceeds from any sale of common units that may be offered by the selling unitholder.
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES AND GUARANTEES
The debt securities that we may offer by this prospectus consist of notes, debentures, or other evidences of indebtedness of the Partnership, which we refer to as “debt securities,” as to any of which CVR Nitrogen Finance Corporation (“Finance Corp”) may be a co-issuer on one or more series of such debt securities. Finance Corp. was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in February 2013, is wholly owned by CVR Partners, LP, and has no material assets or any liabilities other than as a co-issuer of debt securities. When used in this section, references to the “Partnership,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to CVR Partners, LP and, if Finance Corp. is co-issuer as to any series of debt securities, “we,” “us” and “our” include CVR Nitrogen Finance Corporation. We may issue the debt securities under one or more separate indentures among us and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, as Trustee (each, an “Indenture”).
We have summarized the provisions of the Indenture and the debt securities below. You should read the Indenture for more details regarding the provisions described below and for other provisions that may be important to you. We have filed the form of Indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement, and we will include the applicable final indenture and any other instrument establishing the terms of any debt securities we offer as exhibits to a filing we will make with the SEC in connection with that offering. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information.”
The debt securities will represent our unsecured general obligations, unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. As indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will either be senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities, and may have the benefit of guarantees (each, a “guarantee”) by one or more of our existing or future subsidiaries (each, a “guarantor”) specified in the prospectus supplement for the series of such debt securities. Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, as used in this section, the term “guaranteed debt securities” means debt securities that, as described in the prospectus supplement relating thereto, are guaranteed by one or more guarantors pursuant to the applicable indenture.
The provisions of the Indenture will generally be applicable to all of the debt securities. Selected provisions of the Indenture are described in this prospectus. Additional or different provisions that are applicable to a particular series of debt securities will, if material, be described in a prospectus supplement relating to the offering of debt securities of that series. These provisions may include, among other things and to the extent applicable, the following:
whether Finance Corp. will be a co-issuer of the debt securities;
the title of the debt securities;
the extent, if any, to which the debt securities are subordinated in right of payment to our other indebtedness;
any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;
the persons to whom any interest on the debt securities will be payable, if other than the registered holders thereof on the regular record date therefor;
the date or dates on which the principal of the debt securities will be payable;
the rate or rates at which the debt securities will bear interest, if any, and the date or dates from which interest will accrue;
the dates on which interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates;
the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities will be payable;
the period or periods, if any, within which, and the price or prices at which, the debt securities may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at our option;
our obligation, if any, to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to sinking fund or similar provisions and the terms and conditions of any such redemption or purchase;
the denominations in which the debt securities will be issuable, if other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof;
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the currency, currencies or currency units, if other than currency of the United States of America, in which payment of the principal of and any premium or interest on the debt securities will be payable, and the terms and conditions of any elections that may be made available with respect thereto;
any index or formula used to determine the amount of payments of principal of and any premium or interest on the debt securities;
whether the debt securities are to be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities and, if so, the identity of the depositary, if any, for the global securities;
the terms and conditions, if any, pursuant to which the debt securities are convertible into or exchangeable for common units or other securities of the Partnership or any other person;
the principal amount (or any portion of the principal amount) of the debt securities which will be payable upon any declaration of acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities pursuant to an event of default;
whether the debt securities will be guaranteed by any guarantors, and if so, the identity of the guarantors and, to the extent the terms thereof differ from those described in this prospectus, a description of the terms of the guarantees;
the applicability to the debt securities of the provisions described in “—Defeasance” below; and
any other terms applicable to that series in accordance with the Indenture, which could be different from those described in this prospectus.
We may issue debt securities at a discount from their stated principal amount. Federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any debt security issued with original issue discount may be described in an applicable prospectus supplement.
If the purchase price of any series of the debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currency unit or if the principal of or any premium or interest on any series of the debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currency unit, the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms, and other information with respect to the debt securities and the applicable foreign currency or currency unit will be set forth in an applicable prospectus supplement.
Unless otherwise indicated in an applicable prospectus supplement:
the debt securities will be issued only in fully registered form (without coupons) in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof; and
payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities will be payable, and the exchange, conversion, and transfer of debt securities will be registrable, at our office or agency maintained for those purposes and at any other office or agency maintained for those purposes. No service charge will be made for any registration of transfer or exchange of the debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge imposed in connection therewith.
Form of Debt Securities
We will issue each debt security only in registered form, without coupons, unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, we will issue each debt security in global (i.e., book-entry) form only, unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. Debt securities in book-entry form will be represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, which will be the holder of all the debt securities represented by the global security. Those who own beneficial interests in a global debt security will do so through participants in the depositary’s securities clearance system, and the rights of these indirect owners will be governed solely by the applicable procedures of the depositary and its participants. References to “holders” in this section mean those who own debt securities registered in their own names, on the books that we or the Trustee maintain for this purpose, and not those who own beneficial interests in debt securities registered in street name or in debt securities issued in book-entry form through one or more depositaries.
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Book-Entry Procedures
Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, the following is a summary of the depositary arrangements applicable to debt securities issued in global form and for which the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) acts as a depositary. We have provided the following descriptions of the operations and procedures of DTC, Euroclear System (“Euroclear”) and Clearstream Banking, société anonyme (“Clearstream”) solely as a matter of convenience. These operations and procedures are solely within the control of DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream and are subject to change by them from time to time. None of we, any guarantor, any underwriters or the Trustee takes any responsibility for these operations or procedures, and you are urged to contact DTC, Euroclear or Clearstream or their respective participants directly to discuss these matters.
Each global debt security will be deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC, as depositary, or its nominee, and registered in the name of a nominee of DTC. Except under the limited circumstances described below, global debt securities are not exchangeable for definitive certificated debt securities.
Ownership of beneficial interests in a global debt security is limited to institutions that have accounts with DTC or its nominee, or persons that may hold interests through those participants. In addition, ownership of beneficial interests by participants in a global debt security will be evidenced only by, and the transfer of that ownership interest will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC or its nominee for a global debt security.
Ownership of beneficial interests in a global debt security by persons that hold those interests through participants will be evidenced only by, and the transfer of that ownership interest within that participant will be effected only through, records maintained by that participant. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the debt securities. Beneficial owners will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchase, but beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of the transaction, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the participants through which the beneficial owners entered the transaction. The laws of some jurisdictions require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities they purchase in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to transfer beneficial interests in a global debt security.
We will make payment of principal of, and interest on, debt securities represented by a global debt security registered in the name of or held by DTC or its nominee to DTC or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner and holder of the global debt security representing those debt securities. DTC has advised us that upon receipt of any payment of principal of, or interest on, a global debt security, DTC will immediately credit accounts of participants on its book-entry registration and transfer system with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective interests in the principal amount of that global debt security, as shown in the records of DTC. Payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global debt security held through those participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the sole responsibility of those participants, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements that may be in effect from time to time.
Neither we, the Trustee nor any of our respective agents will be responsible for any aspect of the records of DTC, any nominee or any participant relating to, or payments made on account of, beneficial interests in a permanent global debt security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any of the records of DTC, any nominee or any participant relating to such beneficial interests.
A global debt security is exchangeable for definitive debt securities registered in the name of, and a transfer of a global debt security may be registered to, any person other than DTC or its nominee, only if:
DTC notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or has ceased to be a clearing agency under the Exchange Act and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days; or
we notify the Trustee that we wish to terminate that global security.
Any global debt security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence will be exchangeable in whole for definitive debt securities in registered form, of like tenor and of an equal aggregate principal amount as the global debt security, in denominations specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, if other than
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$2,000 and multiples of $1,000. The definitive debt securities will be registered by the registrar in the name or names instructed by DTC. We expect that these instructions may be based upon directions received by DTC from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global debt security.
Except as provided above, owners of the beneficial interests in a global debt security will not be entitled to receive physical delivery of debt securities in definitive form and will not be considered the holders of debt securities for any purpose under the Indenture. No global debt security shall be exchangeable except for another global debt security of like denomination and tenor to be registered in the name of DTC or its nominee. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global debt security must rely on the procedures of DTC and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which that person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the global debt security or the Indenture.
We understand that, under existing industry practices, in the event that we request any action of holders, or an owner of a beneficial interest in a global debt security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the debt securities or the Indenture, DTC would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to take that action. Additionally, those participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through those participants to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners owning through them.
DTC has advised us that it is a limited-purpose trust company organized under the laws of the State of New York, a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law, a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code, and a “clearing agency” registered under the Exchange Act. DTC was created to hold securities of its participants and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions among its participants in securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the participants. By doing so, DTC eliminates the need for physical movement of securities certificates. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations. DTC is owned by a number of its participants and by the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. and NYSE Amex Equities. Access to DTC’s book-entry system is also available to others, such as banks, brokers, dealers, and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.
Investors may hold interests in the debt securities outside the United States through the Euroclear or Clearstream if they are participants in those systems, or indirectly through organizations that are participants in those systems. Euroclear and Clearstream will hold interests on behalf of their participants through customers’ securities accounts in Euroclear’s and Clearstream’s names on the books of their respective depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in the depositaries’ names on the books of DTC.
Euroclear has advised us that it was created in 1968 to hold securities for participants of Euroclear (“Euroclear Participants”) and to clear and settle transactions between Euroclear Participants through simultaneous electronic book-entry delivery against payment, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates and any risk from lack of simultaneous transfers of securities and cash. Euroclear includes various other services, including securities lending and borrowing and interfaces with domestic markets in several countries. Euroclear is operated by the Euroclear S.A./N.V. (the “Euroclear Operator”), under contract with Euroclear Clearance Systems S.C., a Belgian cooperative corporation (the “Cooperative”). All operations are conducted by the Euroclear Operator, and all Euroclear securities clearance accounts and Euroclear cash accounts are accounts with the Euroclear Operator, not the Cooperative. The Cooperative establishes policy for Euroclear on behalf of Euroclear Participants. Euroclear Participants include banks (including central banks), securities brokers and dealers, and other professional financial intermediaries and may include any agents. Indirect access to Euroclear is also available to other firms that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Euroclear Participant, either directly or indirectly.
Securities clearance accounts and cash accounts with the Euroclear Operator are governed by the Terms and Conditions Governing Use of Euroclear, the related Operating Procedures of Euroclear, and applicable Belgian law (collectively, the “Terms and Conditions”). The Terms and Conditions govern transfers of securities and cash within Euroclear, withdrawals of securities and cash within Euroclear, withdrawals of securities and cash from Euroclear, and receipts of payments with respect to securities in Euroclear. All securities in Euroclear are
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held on a fungible basis without attribution of specific certificates to specific securities clearance accounts. The Euroclear Operator acts under the Terms and Conditions only on behalf of Euroclear Participants and has no record of or relationship with persons holding through Euroclear Participants.
Distributions with respect to debt securities held beneficially through Euroclear will be credited to the cash accounts of Euroclear Participants in accordance with the Terms and Conditions, to the extent received by the U.S. depositary for Euroclear.
Clearstream has advised us that it is incorporated under the laws of Luxembourg as a professional depositary. Clearstream holds securities for its participating organizations (“Clearstream Participants”) and facilitates the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between Clearstream Participants through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of Clearstream Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates. Clearstream provides to Clearstream Participants, among other things, services for safekeeping, administration, clearance, and settlement of internationally traded securities and securities lending and borrowing. Clearstream interfaces with domestic markets in several countries. As a professional depositary, Clearstream is subject to regulation by the Luxembourg Monetary Institute. Clearstream Participants are recognized financial institutions around the world, including agents, securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations and may include any agents. Indirect access to Clearstream is also available to others, such as banks, brokers, dealers, and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Clearstream Participant either directly or indirectly.
Distributions with respect to debt securities held beneficially through Clearstream will be credited to cash accounts of Clearstream Participants in accordance with its rules and procedures, to the extent received by the U.S. depositary for Clearstream.
Secondary market trading between Euroclear Participants and Clearstream Participants will occur in the ordinary way in accordance with the applicable rules and operating procedures of Euroclear and Clearstream and will be settled using the procedures applicable to conventional eurobonds in immediately available funds.
Cross-market transfers between persons holding directly or indirectly through DTC, on the one hand, and directly or indirectly through Euroclear Participants or Clearstream Participants, on the other, will be effected within DTC in accordance with DTC’s rules on behalf of the relevant European international clearing system by its U.S. depositary; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to the relevant European international clearing system by the counterparty in such system in accordance with its rules and procedures and within its established deadlines (European time). The relevant European international clearing system will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving debt securities in DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures. Euroclear Participants and Clearstream Participants may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.
Because of time-zone differences, credits of securities received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of a transaction with a DTC participant will be made during subsequent securities settlement processing and dated the business day following the DTC settlement date. Such credits, or any transactions in the securities settled during such processing, will be reported to the relevant Euroclear Participants or Clearstream Participants on that business day. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of securities by or through a Euroclear Participant or a Clearstream Participant to a DTC participant will be received with value on the business day of settlement in DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day following settlement in DTC.
Although DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream have agreed to the foregoing procedures in order to facilitate transfers of debt securities among participants of DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream, they are under no obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and they may discontinue the procedures at any time.
Certain Covenants
Maintenance of Office or Agency
We will be required to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, City of New York, or, if different, in each place of payment for each series of debt securities for notice and demand purposes and for the purposes of presenting or surrendering debt securities for payment, registration of transfer, or exchange.
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Paying Agents
If we act as our own paying agent with respect to any series of debt securities, on or before each due date of the principal of or interest on any of the debt securities of that series, we will be required to segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the persons entitled to payment a sum sufficient to pay the amount due and to notify the Trustee promptly of our action or failure to act. If we have one or more paying agents for any series of debt securities, prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on any debt securities of that series, we will be required to deposit with a paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the amount due and, unless the paying agent is the Trustee, to promptly notify the Trustee of our action or failure to act. All moneys paid by us to a paying agent for the payment of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the principal (or premium, if any) or interest has become due and payable may be repaid to us, and thereafter the holder of those debt securities may look only to us for payment thereof.
Organizational Existence
We will be required to preserve and keep in full force and effect our organizational existence, charter rights, statutory rights, licenses and franchises; provided that we shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise if we shall determine that such preservation is no longer desirable in the conduct of our business.
Compliance Certificate
We will be required to file annually with the Trustee a certificate signed by two of its officers, stating whether or not the officers know of any default by the issuers in compliance with any provision of the Indenture.
Merger and Consolidation
Neither of us will consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all its assets on a consolidated basis to, any Person, unless:
(1)
the resulting, surviving or transferee Person (the “Successor Company”) will (a) be a company, corporation, partnership, trust or limited liability company organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any State of the United States or the District of Columbia and the Successor Company (if not the Partnership) will expressly assume, by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee, all the obligations of the applicable issuer under the debt securities of any series and the Indenture; provided that if the Successor Company is not a corporation, a corporate wholly owned subsidiary organized under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia shall become a co-issuer of such debt securities;
(2)
immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and
(3)
the Partnership shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel (as each is defined in the Indenture), each stating that such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or lease, and such supplemental indenture (if any), comply with the Indenture and that all conditions precedent provided for in the Indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with.
For purposes of the foregoing, the sale, lease, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of one or more subsidiaries of the applicable Issuer, which properties and assets, if held by such issuer instead of such subsidiaries, would constitute all or substantially all of the properties and assets of such issuer on a consolidated basis, shall be deemed to be the transfer of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of such issuer on a consolidated basis.
The predecessor issuer will be released from its obligations under the Indenture and the Successor Company will succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, such issuer under the Indenture, but, in the case of a lease of all or substantially all its assets, the predecessor issuer will not be released from the obligation to pay the principal of and interest on the debt securities of any series.
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No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Events of Default
The following are Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to debt securities of any series:
(1)
default in any payment of interest on any debt security of that series when due and the continuance of such default for a period of 30 days;
(2)
default in the payment of principal of or premium, if any, on any debt security of that series when due at its stated maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise;
(3)
default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due by the terms of a debt security of that series and continuance of such default for a period of 60 days;
(4)
default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant (other than a covenant or a default in whose performance or whose breach is elsewhere specifically dealt with as an Event of Default or which has been expressly included in the Indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series) for a period of 90 days after written notice thereof has been given to us as provided in the Indenture;
(5)
specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency, or reorganization involving us; and
(6)
any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series.
Pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee is required to give to the holders of the debt securities of that series notice of all defaults known to it within 90 days of the occurrence thereof, except that other than in the case of a default of the character contemplated in clause (1), (2), or (3) above, the Trustee may withhold notice if and so long as it in good faith determines that the withholding of notice is in the interests of the holders of the debt securities of that series.
If an Event of Default described in clause (5) above occurs, the principal of, and accrued interest, if any, on the debt securities of that series will become immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any holder of the debt securities of that series. If any other Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, either the Trustee or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the debt securities of that series may declare the principal amount of, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately. However, at any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration has been obtained, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of that series may, under specified circumstances, rescind and annul such acceleration. Please read “—Amendments and Waivers” below.
Subject to the duty of the Trustee to act with the requisite standard of care during an Event of Default, the Trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers under the Indenture at the request or direction of any holders of debt securities of any series unless such holders have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.
Except to enforce the right to receive payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest when due, no holder may pursue any remedy with respect to the Indenture or the debt securities of any series unless:
(1)
such holder has previously given the Trustee notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series;
(2)
holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series have requested the Trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such Event of Default;
(3)
such holders have offered the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense;
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(4)
the Trustee has not complied with such request within 60 days after the receipt of the request and the offer of security or indemnity; and
(5)
the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series have not given the Trustee a direction that is inconsistent with such request within such 60-day period.
Subject to certain restrictions, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series are given the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or of exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee. The Indenture provides that in the event an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee will be required in the exercise of its powers to use the degree of care that a prudent person would use in the conduct of its own affairs. The Trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the Indenture or that the Trustee determines is prejudicial to the rights of any other holder or that would involve the Trustee in personal liability. Prior to taking any action under the Indenture, the Trustee will be entitled to indemnification satisfactory to it in its sole discretion against all losses and expenses caused by taking or not taking such action.
Any additional Events of Default with respect to any series of debt securities, and any variations from the foregoing Events of Default applicable to any series of debt securities, will be described in an applicable prospectus supplement.
An Event of Default for a particular series of debt securities does not necessarily constitute an Event of Default for any other series issued under the Indenture.
Subordination
The prospectus supplement, if any, relating to any offering of subordinated debt securities will describe the specific subordination provisions, including the extent of subordination of payments by us of the principal of, premium, if any, on and interest on such subordinated debt securities.
Amendments and Waivers
Subject to certain exceptions, the Indenture and the debt securities of any series may be amended or supplemented with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of all of the debt securities at the time outstanding (voting as a single class) or, if the amendment or supplement affects the debt securities of fewer than all of such series of debt securities, by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of all such series affected by the amendment or supplement, with the debt securities of all the affected series voting together as a single class for this purpose (including without limitation, consents obtained in connection with a purchase of, or tender offer or exchange offer for, such debt securities) and, subject to certain exceptions, any past default or compliance with any provisions may be waived with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the debt securities at the time outstanding (voting as a single class) or, if the waiver of compliance with provisions affects the debt securities of fewer than all of such series of debt securities, by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of all such series affected by the waiver, with the debt securities of all the affected series voting together as a single class for this purpose (including waivers obtained in connection with a purchase of, or tender offer or exchange offer for, such debt securities). In addition, without the consent of any Holder, the Partnership and the Trustee may amend or supplement the Indenture or any series for certain purposes as set forth in the Indenture.
However, without the consent of each holder of an outstanding debt security affected, no amendment, supplement or waiver may, among other things:
(1)
reduce the percentage in principal amount of debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to an amendment;
(2)
reduce the stated rate of or extend the stated time for payment of interest on any such debt security;
(3)
reduce the principal of or extend the stated maturity of any such debt security;
(4)
reduce the premium payable upon the redemption or repurchase of any such debt security or change the time at which any such debt security may be redeemed or repurchased pursuant to the Indenture or any supplemental indenture;
(5)
change the place or currency of payment of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on any such debt security;
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(6)
impair the right of any holder to receive payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest on such holder’s debt securities on or after the due dates therefor or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to such holder’s debt securities;
(7)
release any guarantor from any of its obligations under its guarantee, except in accordance with the terms of the indenture or the debt securities for which such guarantor has provided a guarantee; or
(8)
make any change in the amendment provisions which require each holder’s consent or in the waiver provisions for such securities.
The consent of the holders is not necessary under the Indenture to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment or supplement. It is sufficient if such consent approves the substance of the proposed amendment or supplement. A consent to any amendment, supplement or waiver under the Indenture by any holder of debt securities given in connection with a tender of such holder’s debt securities will not be rendered invalid by such tender.
Satisfaction and Discharge
The Indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect as to all notes issued thereunder, when either:
(1)
all such notes that have been authenticated and delivered (except lost, stolen or destroyed notes that have been replaced or paid and notes for whose payment money has been deposited in trust) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or
(2)
all such notes not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation: (i) have become due and payable by reason of the making of a notice of redemption or otherwise, (ii) will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year, or (iii) are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Partnership, and the Partnership, in each case of (i), (ii) or (iii) above, has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with such Trustee, as trust funds in trust solely for the benefit of the holders, cash in U.S. dollars, U.S. Government Obligations (as defined in the Indenture), or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient, without consideration of any reinvestment of interest, to pay and discharge the entire Indebtedness on the notes not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation for principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest to the date of maturity or redemption, as the case may be;
(3)
we have paid or caused to be paid all sums payable by it with respect to notes under the Indenture; and
(4)
we have delivered irrevocable instructions to the Trustee to apply the deposited money toward the payment of the notes at maturity or the redemption date, as the case may be.
In addition, we will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel (which Opinion of Counsel may be subject to customary assumptions and exclusions) each stating that all conditions precedent to satisfaction and discharge have been satisfied.
Defeasance
We at any time may terminate all our obligations and the guarantors’ obligations under the debt securities of any series and the Indenture (“legal defeasance”), except for certain obligations, including those respecting the defeasance trust and obligations to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities, to replace mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities and to maintain a registrar and paying agent in respect of the debt securities of any series.
We may at any time terminate our obligations and the guarantors’ obligations to comply with certain covenants described above under “—Certain Covenants” and certain covenants of any outstanding series of debt securities that may be contained in any applicable prospectus supplement, and we may omit to comply with such covenants without creating an Event of Default (“covenant defeasance”). We may exercise our legal defeasance option notwithstanding its prior exercise of its covenant defeasance option.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe our ability to be released from any of our covenant obligations under the Indenture with respect to any series of debt securities.
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In order to exercise either defeasance option, we must irrevocably deposit in trust (the “defeasance trust”) with the Trustee money or U.S. Government Obligations for the payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities of any series to redemption or maturity, as the case may be, and must comply with certain other conditions, including, without limitation, delivery to the Trustee of an Opinion of Counsel (subject to customary exceptions and exclusions) to the effect that holders of such series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and defeasance and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred. In the case of legal defeasance only, such Opinion of Counsel must be based on a ruling of the Internal Revenue Service or other change in applicable Federal income tax law.
If we fail to comply with its remaining obligations under the Indenture with respect to the debt securities of any series following a covenant defeasance and such debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any undefeased Event of Default, the amount of money and U.S. Government Obligations on deposit with the Trustee may be insufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of the acceleration resulting from such Event of Default; however, we will remain liable in respect of such payments.
Payments
We will pay interest, principal and other amounts payable with respect to the debt securities of any series to the holders of record of those debt securities as of the record dates and otherwise in the manner specified below or in the prospectus supplement for that series.
We will make payments on a global debt security in accordance with the applicable policies of the depositary as in effect from time to time. Under those policies, we will pay directly to the depositary, or its nominee, and not to any indirect owners who own beneficial interests in the global debt security. An indirect owner’s right to receive those payments will be governed by the rules and practices of the depositary and its participants.
We will make payments on a debt security in non-global, registered form as follows. We will pay interest that is due on an interest payment date by check mailed on the interest payment date to the holder at his or her address shown on the Trustee’s records as of the close of business on the regular record date. We will make all other payments by check at the paying agent described below, against surrender of the debt security. All payments by check will be made in next-day funds (i.e., funds that become available on the day after the check is cashed).
Alternatively, if a non-global debt security has a face amount of at least $1,000,000 and the holder asks us to do so, we will pay any amount that becomes due on the debt security by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account at a bank in New York City, on the due date. To request wire payment, the holder must give the paying agent appropriate wire transfer instructions at least five business days before the requested wire payment is due. In the case of any interest payment due on an interest payment date, the instructions must be given by the person or entity who is the holder on the relevant regular record date. In the case of any other payment, payment will be made only after the debt security is surrendered to the paying agent. Any wire instructions, once properly given, will remain in effect unless and until new instructions are given in the manner described above.
Book-entry and other indirect owners should consult their banks or brokers for information on how they will receive payments on their debt securities.
Guarantees
The debt securities of any series may be guaranteed by one or more of our existing or future subsidiaries. However, the applicable indenture governing the debt securities will not require that any of our existing or future subsidiaries be a guarantor of any series of debt securities and will permit the guarantors of any series of guaranteed debt securities to differ from the guarantors of any other series of guaranteed debt securities. If we issue a series of guaranteed debt securities, the identity of the specific guarantors of the debt securities of that series will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If we issue a series of guaranteed debt securities, a description of some of the terms of guarantees of those debt securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of guaranteed debt securities, each guarantor of the debt securities of
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such series will fully and unconditionally guarantee, on a joint and several basis with each other guarantor, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on each debt security of such series, all in accordance with the terms of such debt securities and the applicable indenture.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of guaranteed debt securities, the applicable indenture will contain provisions to the effect that the obligations of each guarantor under its guarantees and such indenture shall be limited to the maximum amount as will, after giving effect to all other contingent and fixed liabilities of such guarantor, result in the obligations of such guarantor under such guarantees and such indenture not constituting a fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer under applicable law. However, there can be no assurance that, notwithstanding such limitation, a court would not determine that a guarantee constituted a fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer under applicable law. If that were to occur, the court could void the applicable guarantor’s obligations under that guarantee, subordinate that guarantee to other debt and other liabilities of that guarantor or take other action detrimental to holders of the debt securities of the applicable series, including directing the holders to return any payments received from the applicable guarantor.
No guarantor will consolidate with or merge into any other Person or sell, convey or transfer all or substantially all its properties and assets to any Person, and no guarantor will permit any Person to consolidate with or merge into such guarantor, in each case in a transaction in which the successor Person formed by such consolidation or merger or to which such sale, conveyance or transfer is made is an affiliate of the Partnership, and no guarantor will lease all or substantially all its properties and assets to any Person (whether or not such an affiliate), unless, in any such case:
(1)
in case such guarantor will consolidate with or merge into another Person or sell, convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all its properties and assets to any Person, the Person formed by such consolidation or into which such guarantor is merged or the Person which acquires by sale, conveyance or transfer, or which leases, all or substantially all the properties and assets of such guarantor will be a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust, will be organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia and shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, the performance or observance of every covenant of the Indenture and any guarantees on the part of such guarantor to be performed or observed; and
(2)
immediately after giving effect to such transaction no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing.
Upon any consolidation of any guarantor with, or merger of such guarantor into, any other Person or any sale, conveyance, transfer or lease of all or substantially all the properties and assets of such guarantor in accordance with this paragraph, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which such guarantor is merged or to which such sale, conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, such guarantor under the Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as such guarantor in the Indenture, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person will be relieved of all obligations and covenants under the Indenture and any guarantees of such guarantor.
Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of guaranteed debt securities, the applicable indenture will (i) provide that, upon the sale or disposition (by merger or otherwise) of any guarantor, (x) if the transferee is not an affiliate of us, such guarantor will automatically be released from all obligations under its guarantee of such debt securities or (y) otherwise, the transferee (if other than another guarantor) will assume the guarantor’s obligations under its guarantee of such debt securities and (ii) permit us to cause the guarantee of any guarantor of such debt securities to be released at any time if we satisfy such conditions, if any, as are specified in the prospectus supplement for such debt securities.
The applicable prospectus supplement relating to any series of guaranteed debt securities will specify other terms of the applicable guarantees.
If the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a series of our senior debt securities provides that those senior debt securities will have the benefit of a guarantee by any or all of our existing or future subsidiaries,
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unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, each such guarantee will be the unsubordinated and unsecured obligation of the applicable guarantor and will rank equally in right of payment with all of the unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness of such guarantor.
Any guarantee of any debt securities will be effectively subordinated to all existing and future secured indebtedness of the applicable guarantor, including any secured guarantees of other Partnership indebtedness, to the extent of the value of the collateral securing that indebtedness. Consequently, in the event of a bankruptcy, or similar proceeding with respect to any guarantor that has provided a guarantee of any debt securities, the holders of that guarantor’s secured indebtedness will be entitled to proceed directly against the collateral that secures that secured indebtedness and such collateral will not be available for satisfaction of any amount owed by such guarantor under its unsecured indebtedness, including its guarantees of any debt securities, until that secured debt is satisfied in full. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indenture will not limit the ability of any guarantor to incur secured indebtedness.
If the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a series of our subordinated debt securities provides that those subordinated debt securities will have the benefit of a guarantee by any or all of our existing or future subsidiaries, unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, each such guarantee will be the subordinated and unsecured obligation of the applicable guarantor and, in addition to being effectively subordinated to secured debt of such guarantor, will be subordinated in right of payment to all of such guarantor’s existing and future senior indebtedness, including any guarantee of the senior debt securities, to the same extent and in the same manner as the subordinated debt securities are subordinated to our senior debt. Please read “— Subordination” above.
No Individual Liability of Incorporators, Unitholders, Officers or Directors
The Indenture provides that no incorporator and no past, present or future unitholder, officer or director of the Partnership, Finance Corp., any guarantor or any Successor Company, in their capacity as such, shall have any individual liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities, the guarantees or the Indenture.
Governing Law
The Indenture is, and the debt securities and any guarantees will be, governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.
Regarding the Trustee
The Indenture does not prohibit the Trustee from serving as trustee under any other indenture to which we may be a party from time to time or from engaging in other transactions with us. If the Trustee acquires any conflicting interest within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and there is an Event of Default with respect to any series of debt securities, the Trustee must eliminate the conflict or resign.
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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON UNITS AND PREFERRED UNITS
General
As of the date of this prospectus, we have outstanding common units and no preferred units. Our common units represent limited partner interests in us. The holders of units are entitled to participate in partnership distributions and exercise the rights or privileges available to limited partners under our partnership agreement (as defined below).
This description is a summary only and does not purport to be complete. We encourage you to read the complete text of our amended and restated certificate of limited partnership and amended and restated partnership agreement (as amended, our “partnership agreement”), each of which are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
Cash Distributions
We expect to make distributions generally within 60 days after the end of each quarter as determined by the board of directors of our general partner, to unitholders of record on the applicable record date. For a description of our cash distribution policy, please read “Cash Distribution Policy and Restrictions on Distributions—Our Cash Distribution Policy.”
Common Units Eligible for Distribution. Each common unit is allocated a portion of our income, gain, loss, deduction and credit on a pro-rata basis, and each common unit will be entitled to receive distributions (including upon liquidation) in the same manner as each other common unit.
Method of Distributions. We will pay distributions pursuant to our general partner’s determination of the amount of available cash for the applicable quarter, which we then distribute to our unitholders as of a fixed record date on a pro rata basis. However, our partnership agreement allows us to issue an unlimited number of additional equity interests of equal or senior rank. Our partnership agreement permits us to borrow to make distributions, but we are not required and do not intend to borrow to pay quarterly distributions. Accordingly, there is no guarantee that we will pay any distribution on the units in any quarter. We do not have a legal obligation to pay distributions, and the amount of distributions paid under our cash distribution policy and the decision to make any distribution is determined by the board of directors of our general partner.
General Partner Interest. Our general partner owns a non-economic general partner interest and is not entitled to receive cash distributions. However, it may acquire common units and other equity interests in the future and will be entitled to receive pro rata distributions therefrom.
Adjustments to Capital Accounts Upon Issuance of Additional Common Units. We will make adjustments to capital accounts upon the issuance of additional common units. In doing so, we will generally allocate any unrealized and, for tax purposes, unrecognized gain or loss resulting from the adjustments to our unitholders prior to such issuance on a pro rata basis, so that after such issuance, the capital account balances attributable to all common units are equal.
Issuance of Additional Partnership Interests
Our partnership agreement authorizes us to issue an unlimited number of additional partnership interests for the consideration and on the terms and conditions determined by our general partner without the approval of the unitholders.
It is possible that we will fund acquisitions through the issuance of additional common units or other partnership interests. Holders of any additional common units we issue will be entitled to share equally with the then-existing holders of common units in our quarterly cash distributions. In addition, the issuance of additional common units or other partnership interests may dilute the value of the interests of the then-existing holders of common units in our net assets.
In accordance with Delaware law and the provisions of our partnership agreement, we may also issue additional partnership interests that, as determined by our general partner, have special voting rights to which the common units are not entitled or are senior in right of distribution to the common units. In addition, our partnership agreement does not prohibit the issuance by our subsidiaries of equity interests, which may effectively rank senior to the common units.
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Our general partner has the right, which it may from time to time assign in whole or in part to any of its affiliates, to purchase common units, whenever, and on the same terms that, we issue those interests to persons other than our general partner and its affiliates, to the extent necessary to maintain its and its affiliates’ percentage interest, including such interest represented by common units, that existed immediately prior to each issuance. The holders of common units will not have preemptive rights under our partnership agreement to acquire additional common units or other partnership interests.
Merger, Sale or Other Disposition of Assets
A merger or consolidation or conversion of us requires the prior consent of our general partner. However, our general partner has no duty or obligation to consent to any merger or consolidation and may decline to do so free of any fiduciary duty or obligation whatsoever to us or other partners, including any duty to act in good faith or in the best interest of us or the other partners.
In addition, our partnership agreement generally prohibits our general partner, without the prior approval of the holders of a unit majority, from causing us to sell, exchange or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets in a single transaction or a series of related transactions, including by way of merger, consolidation or other combination. Our general partner may, however, mortgage, pledge, hypothecate or grant a security interest in all or substantially all of our assets without that approval. Our general partner may also sell all or substantially all of our assets under a foreclosure or other realization upon those encumbrances without that approval.
Finally, our general partner may consummate any merger without the prior approval of our unitholders if we are the surviving entity in the transaction, our general partner has received an opinion of counsel regarding limited liability and tax matters, the transaction would not result in a material amendment to the partnership agreement (other than an amendment that the general partner could adopt without the consent of other partners), each of our common units will be an identical unit of our partnership following the transaction and the partnership securities to be issued do not exceed 20% of our outstanding partnership interests immediately prior to the transaction.
If the conditions specified in our partnership agreement are satisfied, our general partner may convert us or our subsidiaries into a new limited liability entity or merge us or our subsidiaries into, or convey all of our assets to, a newly formed entity, if the sole purpose of that conversion, merger or conveyance is to effect a mere change in our legal form into another limited liability entity, we have received an opinion of counsel regarding limited liability and tax matters and the governing instruments of the new entity provide the limited partners and our general partner with the same rights and obligations as contained in our partnership agreement. Our unitholders are not entitled to dissenters’ rights of appraisal under our partnership agreement or applicable Delaware law in the event of a conversion, merger or consolidation, a sale of substantially all of our assets or any other similar transaction or event.
Call Right
If at any time our general partner and its affiliates own more than 80% of the then-issued and outstanding limited partner interests of any class, our general partner has the right, which it may assign in whole or in part to any of its affiliates or to us, to acquire all, but not less than all, of the limited partner interests of the class held by public unitholders, as of a record date to be selected by our general partner, on at least 10 but not more than 60 days’ notice. As of August 1, 2022, the only class of limited partner interest outstanding was the common units, and affiliates of our general partner owned approximately 36.8% of the total outstanding common units as of such date.
The purchase price in the event of such an acquisition will be the greater of:
the highest price paid by our general partner or any of its affiliates for any limited partner interests of the class purchased within the 90 days preceding the date on which our general partner first mails notice of its election to purchase those limited partner interests; and
the average of the daily closing prices of the limited partner interests over the 20 trading days preceding the date three days before notice of exercise of the call right is first mailed.
As a result of our general partner’s right to purchase outstanding common units, a holder of common units may have its common units purchased at an undesirable time or at a price that may be lower than market prices
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at various times prior to such purchase or lower than a unitholder may anticipate the market price to be in the future. The U.S. federal income tax consequences to a unitholder of the exercise of this call right are the same as a sale by that unitholder of his common units in the market. Please read “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”
Transfer of Common Units
By transfer of common units in accordance with our partnership agreement, each transferee of common units shall be admitted as a limited partner with respect to the common units transferred when such transfer and admission is reflected in our books and records. Each transferee:
represents that the transferee has the capacity, power and authority to become bound by our partnership agreement;
automatically agrees to be bound by the terms and conditions of, and is deemed to have executed, our partnership agreement; and
gives the consents and approvals contained in our partnership agreement.
A transferee will become a substituted limited partner of our partnership for the transferred common units automatically upon the recording of the transfer on our books and records. Our general partner will cause any transfers to be recorded on our books and records from time to time as necessary to accurately reflect the transfers.
We may, at our discretion, treat the nominee holder of a common unit as the absolute owner. In that case, the beneficial holder’s rights are limited solely to those that it has against the nominee holder as a result of any agreement between the beneficial owner and the nominee holder.
Common units are securities and are transferable according to the laws governing transfer of securities. In addition to other rights acquired upon transfer, the transferor gives the transferee the right to become a limited partner in our partnership for the transferred common units.
Voting Rights
The following is a summary of the unitholder vote required for the matters specified below. Matters requiring the approval of a “unit majority” require the approval of majority of the common units.
In voting their common units, our general partner and its affiliates have no fiduciary duty or obligation whatsoever to us or the limited partners, including any duty to act in good faith or in the best interests of us or the limited partners. The holders of a majority of the common units (including common units deemed owned by our general partner) represented in person or by proxy shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of such common unitholders, unless any such action requires approval by holders of a greater percentage of such units in which case the quorum shall be such greater percentage.
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The following is a summary of the vote requirements specified for certain matters under our partnership agreement:
Issuance of additional partnership interests
No approval right. Please read “—Issuance of Additional Partner Interests.”
 
 
Amendment of our partnership agreement
Certain amendments may be made by our general partner without the approval of the common unitholders. Other amendments generally require the approval of a unit majority. Please read “Description of Our Partnership Agreement—Amendment of Our Partnership Agreement.”
 
 
Merger of our partnership or the sale of all or substantially all of our assets
Unit majority in certain circumstances. Please read “—Merger, Sale or Other Disposition of Assets.”
 
 
Dissolution of the Partnership
Unit majority. Please read “Description of Our Partnership Agreement—Termination and Dissolution.”
 
 
Continuation of the Partnership upon dissolution
Unit majority. Please read “Description of Our Partnership Agreement—Termination and Dissolution.”
 
 
Withdrawal of our general partner
Our general partner may withdraw as general partner without first obtaining approval of any unitholder by giving 90 days’ written notice, and that withdrawal will not constitute a violation of our partnership agreement. Please read “Description of Our Partnership Agreement—Withdrawal or Removal of Our General Partner.”
 
 
Removal of our general partner
Not less than 66 2/3% of the outstanding common units, voting together as a single class, including common units held by our general partner and its affiliates. Please read “Description of Our Partnership Agreement—Withdrawal or Removal of Our General Partner.”
 
 
Transfer of the general partner interest
Our general partner may transfer all or any part of its general partner interest in us without a vote of our unitholders. Please read “Description of Partnership Agreement—Transfer of General Partner Interest.”
 
 
Transfer of ownership interests in our general partner
No approval rights at any time. Please read “Description of Our Partnership Agreement—Transfer of Ownership Interests in Our General Partner.”
Listing
Our common units are traded on the NYSE under the symbol “UAN.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
American Stock Transfer & Trust Company serves as registrar and transfer agent for the common units.
The Preferred Units
Our partnership agreement authorizes us to issue an unlimited number of additional limited partner interests and other equity securities for the consideration and with the designations, preferences, rights, powers and duties established by our general partner without the approval of any of our limited partners. In accordance with Delaware law and the provisions of our partnership agreement, we may issue additional partnership interests that have special voting rights to which our common units or subordinated units are not entitled. As of the date of this prospectus, we have no preferred units outstanding.
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Should we offer preferred units under this prospectus, a prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of preferred units offered will include the specific terms of those preferred units, including, among other things, the following:
the designation, stated value and liquidation preference of the preferred units and the number of preferred units offered;
the price at which the preferred units will be issued;
the conversion or exchange provisions of the preferred units;
any redemption or sinking fund provisions of the preferred units;
the distribution rights of the preferred units, if any;
a discussion of any additional material federal income tax considerations regarding the preferred units; and
any additional rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions of the preferred units.
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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
We may issue rights to purchase any combination of common units, preferred units or partnership securities. These rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the unitholder receiving the rights in such offering.
The rights will be issued under rights agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates representing the rights and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. You should read the particular terms of the rights, which will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement. The particular terms of any rights offered by any prospectus supplement, and the extent to which the general provisions summarized below may apply to the offered securities, will be described in a prospectus supplement.
Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of rights we offer, the rights agreement relating to the rights and the certificates representing the rights, including the following:
the title of the rights and the aggregate number outstanding;
the date of determining the unitholders entitled to the rights distribution;
the number of rights issued or to be issued to each unitholder;
the exercise price payable for each common unit, preferred unit or other securities upon the exercise of the rights;
the number and terms of the common units, preferred units or other securities which may be purchased per each right;
the extent to which the rights are transferable;
the date on which the holder’s ability to exercise the rights shall commence, and the date on which the rights shall expire;
the extent to which the rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities;
if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement entered into by us in connection with the offering of such rights; and
any other terms of the rights, including the terms, procedures, conditions and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the rights.
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants to purchase any combination of common units, preferred units or partnership securities. Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase for cash a number of securities at the exercise price as will in each case be described in, or can be determined from, the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the offered warrants.
Warrants may be issued independently or together with any securities and may be attached to or separate from the securities. The warrants will be issued under warrant agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. You should read the particular terms of the warrants, which will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement. The particular terms of any warrants offered by any prospectus supplement, and the extent to which the general provisions summarized below may apply to the offered securities, will be described in a prospectus supplement.
Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of warrants we offer, the warrant agreement relating to the warrants and the certificates representing the warrants, including, to the extent applicable:
the title of the warrants;
the aggregate number of warrants;
the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;
the currency or currencies, including composite currencies or currency units, in which the price of the warrants may be payable if not payable in U.S. dollars;
the designation, number or aggregate principal amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants, and the procedures and conditions relating to the exercise of the warrants;
any provisions for adjustment of the number or amount of securities receivable upon exercise of the warrants or the exercise price of the warrants;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence, and the date on which the right will expire;
the designation and terms of any related securities with which the warrants are issued, and the number of the warrants issued with each security;
the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;
the maximum or minimum number of warrants that may be exercised at any time;
the terms of any mandatory or optional redemption by us;
the identity of the warrant agent;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;
if appropriate, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and
any other terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.
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DESCRIPTION OF PARTNERSHIP SECURITIES
Our partnership agreement authorizes us to issue an unlimited number of additional partnership interests for the consideration and on the terms and conditions determined by our general partner without the approval of the limited partners.
In accordance with Delaware law and the provisions of our partnership agreement, we may also issue additional partnership interests that, as determined by our general partner, have special voting rights to which the common units are not entitled or are senior in right of distribution to the common units.
The following is a description of the general terms and provisions of our partnership securities. The particular terms of any series of partnership securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement and the amendment to our partnership agreement, if necessary, relating to that series of partnership securities, which will be filed as an exhibit to or incorporated by reference in this prospectus at or before the time of issuance of any such series of partnership securities. If so indicated in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any such series may differ from the terms set forth below.
The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the number of securities, particular designation, relative rights and preferences and the limitations of any series of partnership securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered.
Partnership securities will be fully paid and non-assessable when issued upon full payment of the purchase price therefor. The prospectus supplement will contain, if applicable, a description of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to the purchase and ownership of the series of partnership securities offered by the prospectus supplement. The transfer agent for the partnership securities will be designated in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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CASH DISTRIBUTION POLICY AND RESTRICTIONS ON DISTRIBUTIONS
You should read the following discussion of our cash distribution policy and restrictions on distributions in conjunction with the specific assumptions upon which our cash distribution policy is based. For additional information regarding our historical operating results, you should refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation” and our audited historical consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference in this prospectus from our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021. In addition, you should read “Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Statements” herein for information regarding statements that do not relate strictly to historical or current facts and certain risks inherent in our business.
Our Cash Distribution Policy
Our general partner’s current policy is to distribute all of the available cash we generate each quarter. Available cash for each quarter is determined by the board of directors of our general partner following the end of such quarter, and distributions are generally made to unitholders of record on the applicable record date within 60 days after the end of each quarter. Available cash for each quarter generally has been calculated as the Partnership’s EBITDA excluding non-cash income or expense items, if any, for which adjustment is deemed necessary or appropriate by the board of directors of our general partner in its sole discretion, less (i) reserves for maintenance capital expenditures, debt service and other contractual obligations, and (ii) reserves for future operating or capital need, if any, in each case, that the board of directors of our general partners deems necessary or appropriate in its sole discretion. Available cash for distribution may be increased by the release of previously established cash reserves, if any, at the discretion of the board of directors of our general partner. We do not maintain excess distribution coverage for the purpose of maintaining stability or growth in our quarterly distribution or otherwise to reserve cash for distributions, nor do we intend to incur debt to pay quarterly distributions. We expect to finance substantially all of our growth externally, either by debt issuances or additional issuances of equity.
Because our policy is to distribute all available cash we generate each quarter, without reserving cash for future distributions or borrowing to pay distributions during periods of low cash flow from operations, our unitholders have direct exposure to fluctuations in the amount of cash generated by our business. We expect that the amount of our quarterly distributions, if any, will vary based on our earnings during each quarter. Our quarterly cash distributions, if any, will not be stable and will vary from quarter to quarter as a direct result of variations in our operating performance and earnings caused by fluctuations in the price of nitrogen fertilizers, among other factors. Such variations may be significant. The board of directors of our general partner may change the foregoing distribution policy at any time and from time to time. Our partnership agreement does not require us to pay cash distributions on a quarterly or other basis.
Limitations on Cash Distributions; Our Ability to Change Our Cash Distribution Policy
There is no guarantee that unitholders will receive quarterly cash distributions from us. Our distribution policy may be changed at any time and is subject to certain restrictions, including:
Our unitholders have no contractual or other legal right to receive cash distributions from us on a quarterly or other basis. Our general partner’s current policy is to distribute to our unitholders each quarter all of the available cash we generate each quarter, as determined quarterly by the board of directors, but it may change this policy at any time.
Our business performance is expected to be more seasonal and volatile, and our cash flows are expected to be less stable, than the business performance and cash flows of most publicly traded partnerships. As a result, our quarterly cash distributions will be volatile and are expected to vary quarterly and annually. Unlike most publicly traded partnerships, we do not have a minimum quarterly distribution or employ structures intended to consistently maintain or increase quarterly distributions over time. Furthermore, none of our limited partnership interests, including those held by CVR Services are subordinate in right of distribution payment to the common units.
The amount of distributions we pay under our cash distribution policy and the decision to make any distribution is determined by the board of directors of our general partner. Our partnership agreement does not provide for any minimum quarterly distributions.
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Under Section 17-607 of the Delaware Act, we may not make a distribution to our limited partners if the distribution would cause our liabilities to exceed the fair value of our assets.
Our distribution policy may be subject to restrictions on distributions under our current and future agreements governing our indebtedness, including our ABL credit facility (the “ABL Credit Facility”) and the indenture (the “Indenture”) governing our 6.125% Senior Unsecured Notes due 2028. The ABL Credit Facility and the Indenture restrict our ability to make distributions unless we are in compliance with certain financial tests and covenants therein. Should we be unable to satisfy such financial covenants or if we are otherwise in default under the ABL Credit Facility or the Indenture, we may be prohibited from making cash distributions to you notwithstanding our stated cash distribution policy.
Our general partner has the authority to establish cash reserves for the prudent conduct of our business, and the establishment of or increase in those reserves could result in a reduction in cash distributions to our unitholders. Our partnership agreement does not set a limit on the amount of cash reserves that our general partner may establish. Any decision to establish cash reserves made by our general partner in good faith will be binding on our unitholders.
Prior to making any distributions on our units, we will reimburse our general partner and its affiliates for all direct and indirect expenses they incur on our behalf. Our partnership agreement provides that our general partner will determine in good faith the expenses that are allocable to us but does not limit the amount of expenses for which our general partner and its affiliates may be reimbursed. The reimbursement of expenses and payment of fees, if any, to our general partner and its affiliates will reduce the amount of cash to pay distributions to our unitholders.
We may lack sufficient cash to make distributions to our unitholders due to a number of factors that would adversely affect us, including but not limited to decreases in net sales or increases in operating expenses, principal and interest payments on debt, working capital requirements, capital expenditures or anticipated cash needs.
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DESCRIPTION OF OUR PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT
The following is a summary of the material provisions of our partnership agreement. A copy of our partnership agreement is available through the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We will provide prospective investors with a copy of our partnership agreement upon request at no charge. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information.”
We summarize the following provisions of our partnership agreement elsewhere in this prospectus:
with regard to distributions of available cash, please read “Description of Common Units and Preferred Units—Cash Distributions” and “Cash Distribution Policy and Restrictions on Distributions”;
with regard to the duties of, and standard of care applicable to, our general partner, please read “Conflicts of Interest and Fiduciary Duties”;
with regard to the voting rights of common units, please read “Description of Common Units and Preferred Units—Voting Rights”;
with regard to the transfer of common units, please read “Description of Common Units and Preferred Units—Transfer of Common Units”; and
with regard to allocations of taxable income and taxable loss, please read “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences.”
Organization and Duration
We were organized on June 12, 2007 and will have a perpetual existence unless terminated pursuant to the terms of our partnership agreement.
Purpose
Our purpose under our partnership agreement is limited to engaging in any business activity that is approved by our general partner and that lawfully may be conducted by a limited partnership organized under Delaware law.
Although our general partner has the ability to cause us and our subsidiaries to engage in activities other than those related to the nitrogen fertilizer business and activities now or hereafter customarily conducted in conjunction with such business, our general partner may decline to do so free of any fiduciary duty or obligation whatsoever to us or the limited partners, including any duty to act in good faith or in the best interests of us or our limited partners. In general, our general partner is authorized to perform all acts it determines to be necessary or appropriate to carry out our purposes and to conduct our business.
Capital Contributions
Common unitholders are not obligated to make additional capital contributions, except as described below under “—Limited Liability.” For a discussion of our general partner’s right to contribute capital to maintain its and its affiliates’ percentage interest if we issue partnership interests, see “Description of Common Units and Preferred Units—Issuance of Additional Partnership Interests.”
Management
Our general partner, CVR GP, LLC, manages our operations and activities subject to the terms and conditions specified in our partnership agreement. Our general partner is owned by CVR Services, LLC (formerly known as Coffeyville Resources, LLC), an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of CVR Energy (“CVR Services”). The operations of our general partner in its capacity as general partner are managed by its board of directors. Actions by our general partner that are made in its individual capacity are made by CVR Services as the sole member of our general partner and not by the board of directors of our general partner. Our general partner was not elected by our unitholders and is not subject to re-election on a regular basis. See below under “—Termination and Dissolution” and “—Withdrawal or Removal of Our General Partner” for a description of the circumstances in which our unitholders may elect a successor general partner. The officers of our general partner manage the day-to-day affairs of our business.
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Limited partners are not entitled to elect the directors of our general partner or directly or indirectly participate in our management or operation. Our general partner is liable, as a general partner, for all of our debts (to the extent not paid from our assets), except for indebtedness or other obligations that are made expressly non-recourse to it. Our general partner, therefore, may cause us to incur indebtedness or other obligations that are non-recourse to it. Our debt instruments are non-recourse to our general partner.
Whenever our general partner makes a determination or takes or declines to take an action in its individual, rather than representative, capacity, it is entitled to make such determination or to take or decline to take such action free of any fiduciary duty or obligation whatsoever to us, any limited partner or assignee, and it is not required to act in good faith or pursuant to any other standard imposed by our partnership agreement or under Delaware law or any other law. Examples include the exercise or assignment of its call right or its registration rights, its voting rights with respect to the units it owns and its determination whether or not to consent to any merger or consolidation of the Partnership.
Applicable Law; Forum, Venue and Jurisdiction
Our partnership agreement is governed by Delaware law. Our partnership agreement requires that any claims, suits, actions or proceedings:
arising out of or relating in any way to the partnership agreement (including any claims, suits or actions to interpret, apply or enforce the provisions of the partnership agreement or the duties, obligations or liabilities among limited partners or of limited partners to us, or the rights or powers of, or restrictions on, the limited partners or us);
brought in a derivative manner on our behalf;
asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of us or our general partner, or owed by our general partner, to us or the limited partners;
asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (the “Delaware Act”); or
asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
shall be exclusively brought in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, in each case regardless of whether such claims, suits, actions or proceedings sound in contract, tort, fraud or otherwise, are based on common law, statutory, equitable, legal or other grounds, or are derivative or direct claims. By purchasing a common unit, a limited partner is irrevocably (a) consenting to these limitations and provisions regarding claims, suits, actions or proceedings, (b) submitting to the exclusive jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware in connection with any such claims, suits, actions or proceedings and (c) (i) agreeing not to, and waiving any right to, assert in any such claim, suit, action or proceeding certain procedural claims, (ii) waiving certain bond posting requirements and (iii) consenting to certain procedures for service of process.
Limited Liability
Assuming that a limited partner does not participate in the control of our business within the meaning of the Delaware Act and that it otherwise acts in conformity with the provisions of our partnership agreement, its liability under the Delaware Act will be limited, subject to possible exceptions, to the amount of capital it is obligated to contribute to us for its common units plus its share of any undistributed profits and assets. If it were determined, however, that the right, or exercise of the right, by the limited partners as a group:
to remove or replace our general partner,
to approve some amendments to our partnership agreement, or
to take other action under our partnership agreement,
constituted “participation in the control” of our business for the purposes of the Delaware Act, then the limited partners could be held personally liable for our obligations under the laws of Delaware to the same extent as our general partner. This liability would extend to persons who transact business with us who reasonably believe that the limited partner is a general partner. Neither our partnership agreement nor the Delaware Act specifically provides for legal recourse against our general partner if a limited partner were to lose limited
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liability through any fault of our general partner. While this does not mean that a limited partner could not seek legal recourse, we know of no precedent for such a claim in Delaware case law.
Under the Delaware Act, a limited partnership may not make a distribution to a partner if, after the distribution, all liabilities of the limited partnership, other than liabilities to partners on account of their partnership interests and liabilities for which the recourse of creditors is limited to specific property of the Partnership, would exceed the fair value of the assets of the limited partnership. For the purpose of determining the fair value of the assets of a limited partnership, the Delaware Act provides that the fair value of property subject to liability for which recourse of creditors is limited shall be included in the assets of the limited partnership only to the extent that the fair value of that property exceeds the nonrecourse liability. The Delaware Act provides that a limited partner who receives a distribution and knew at the time of the distribution that the distribution was in violation of the Delaware Act shall be liable to the limited partnership for the amount of the distribution for three years. Under the Delaware Act, a substituted limited partner of a limited partnership is liable for the obligations of his assignor to make contributions to the Partnership, except that such person is not obligated for liabilities unknown to him at the time he became a limited partner and that could not be ascertained from the partnership agreement.
Certain of our subsidiaries conduct business in multiple states. We and our current subsidiaries or any future subsidiaries may conduct business in other states in the future. Maintenance of our limited liability as a member of our operating company may require compliance with legal requirements in the jurisdictions in which our operating company conducts business, including qualifying our subsidiaries to do business there. We have attempted to limit our liability for the obligations of our operating subsidiary by structuring it as a limited liability company.
If, by virtue of our membership interest in our operating subsidiary or otherwise, it were determined that we were conducting business in any state without compliance with the applicable limited partnership or liability company statute, or that the right, or exercise of the right by the limited partners as a group, to remove or replace our general partner, to approve some amendments to our partnership agreement, or to take other action under our partnership agreement constituted “participation in the control” of our business for purposes of the statutes of any relevant jurisdiction, then the limited partners could be held personally liable for our obligations under the law of that jurisdiction to the same extent as our general partner under the circumstances. We will operate in a manner that our general partner considers reasonable and necessary or appropriate to preserve the limited liability of the limited partners.
Amendment of Our Partnership Agreement
General
Amendments to our partnership agreement may be proposed only by our general partner. However, our general partner has no duty or obligation to propose any amendment and may decline to do so free of any fiduciary duty or obligation whatsoever to us or any partner, including any duty to act in good faith or in the best interests of us or the limited partners. In order to adopt a proposed amendment, other than the amendments discussed below under “—No Unitholder Approval,” our general partner is required to seek written approval of the holders of the number of common units required to approve the amendment or call a meeting of the limited partners to consider and vote upon the proposed amendment. Except as described below, an amendment must be approved by a unit majority.
Prohibited Amendments
No amendment may:
(1)
enlarge the obligations of any limited partner without its consent, unless approved by at least a majority of the type or class of partner interests so affected; or
(2)
enlarge the obligations of, restrict, change or modify in any way any action by or rights of, or reduce in any way the amounts distributable, reimbursable or otherwise payable by us to our general partner or any of its affiliates without the consent of our general partner, which consent may be given or withheld in its sole discretion.
The provision of our partnership agreement preventing the amendments having the effects described in any of the clauses above can be amended upon the approval of the holders of at least 90% of the outstanding
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common units, voting together as a single class (including common units owned by our general partner and its affiliates), and obtaining an opinion of counsel regarding limited liability, as further described below under “—Opinion of Counsel and Unitholder Approval.”
No Unitholder Approval
Our general partner may generally make amendments to our partnership agreement without the approval of any other partner to reflect:
a change in our name, the location of our principal place of business, our registered agent or our registered office;
the admission, substitution, withdrawal or removal of partners in accordance with our partnership agreement;
a change that our general partner determines to be necessary or appropriate for us to qualify or to continue our qualification as a limited partnership or a partnership in which the limited partners have limited liability under the laws of any state or to ensure that neither we nor our subsidiaries will be treated as an association taxable as a corporation or otherwise taxed as an entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
an amendment that is necessary, in the opinion of our counsel, to prevent us or our general partner or CVR Energy or their directors, officers, agents, or trustees from in any manner being subjected to the provisions of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended, or “plan asset” regulations adopted under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, or ERISA, regardless of whether such are substantially similar to plan asset regulations currently applied or proposed by the United States Department of Labor;
an amendment that our general partner determines to be necessary or appropriate in connection with the creation, authorization, or issuance of any class or series of partnership interests or any options, rights, warrants and appreciation rights relating to an equity interest in the Partnership, as otherwise permitted by our partnership agreement;
any amendment expressly permitted in our partnership agreement to be made by our general partner acting alone;
an amendment effected, necessitated or contemplated by a merger agreement that has been approved in accordance with the terms of our partnership agreement;
an amendment that our general partner determines to be necessary or appropriate to reflect and account for the formation by us of, or our investment in, any corporation, partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or other entity, as otherwise permitted by our partnership agreement;
a change in our fiscal year or taxable year and related changes;
mergers with or conveyances to another limited liability entity that is newly formed and has no assets, liabilities or operations at the time of the merger or conveyance other than those it receives by way of the merger or conveyance; or
any other amendments substantially similar to any of the matters described above.
In addition, our general partner may make amendments to our partnership agreement without the approval of any partner if our general partner determines that those amendments:
do not adversely affect in any material respect the partners considered as a whole or any particular class of partners;
are necessary or appropriate to satisfy any requirements, conditions, or guidelines contained in any opinion, directive, order, ruling, or regulation of any federal or state agency or judicial authority or contained in any federal or state statute;
are necessary or appropriate to facilitate the trading of limited partner interests or to comply with any rule, regulation, guideline, or requirement of any securities exchange on which the limited partner interests are or will be listed for or admitted to trading;
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are necessary or appropriate for any action taken by our general partner relating to splits or combinations of common units under the provisions of our partnership agreement; or
are required to effect the intent expressed in the prospectus filed as part of our initial registration statement on Form S-1 or the intent of the provisions of our partnership agreement or are otherwise contemplated by our partnership agreement.
Opinion of Counsel and Unitholder Approval
For amendments of the type not requiring unitholder approval, our general partner will not be required to obtain an opinion of counsel that an amendment will neither result in a loss of limited liability to the limited partners nor result in our being treated as a taxable entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in connection with any of the amendments. No other amendments to our partnership agreement will become effective without the approval of holders of at least 90% of the outstanding common units voting as a single class unless we first obtain an opinion of counsel to the effect that the amendment will not affect the limited liability under Delaware law of any of our limited partners.
Any amendment that would have a material adverse effect on the rights or preferences of any type or class of outstanding common units in relation to other classes of units will require the approval of at least a majority of the type or class of common units so affected. Any amendment that would reduce the voting percentage required to take any action, other than to remove the general partner or call a meeting of unitholders must be approved by the affirmative vote of partners whose aggregate outstanding units constitute not less than the voting requirement sought to be reduced.
Termination and Dissolution
We will continue as a limited partnership until terminated under our partnership agreement. We will dissolve upon:
(1)
the election of our general partner to dissolve us, if approved by the holders of common units representing a unit majority;
(2)
there being no limited partners, unless we are continued without dissolution in accordance with applicable Delaware law;
(3)
the entry of a decree of judicial dissolution of our partnership; or
(4)
the withdrawal or removal of our general partner or any other event that results in its ceasing to be our general partner other than by reason of a transfer of its general partner interest in accordance with our partnership agreement or withdrawal or removal following approval and admission of a successor.
Upon a dissolution under clause (4), the holders of a unit majority may also elect, within specific time limitations, to continue our business on the same terms and conditions described in our partnership agreement by appointing as a successor general partner an entity approved by the holders of common units representing a unit majority, subject to our receipt of an opinion of counsel to the effect that:
the action would not result in the loss of limited liability under Delaware law of any limited partner; and
neither our partnership nor any successor limited partnership would be treated as an association taxable as a corporation or otherwise be taxable as an entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the exercise of such right to continue (to the extent not already so treated or taxed).
Liquidation and Distribution of Proceeds
Upon our dissolution, unless our business is continued, the liquidator authorized to wind up our affairs will, acting with all of the powers of our general partner that are necessary or appropriate, liquidate our assets and apply the proceeds of the liquidation as set forth in our partnership agreement. The liquidator may defer liquidation or distribution of our assets for a reasonable period of time or distribute assets to partners in kind if it determines that a sale would be impractical or would cause undue loss to our partners.
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Withdrawal or Removal of Our General Partner
Our general partner may withdraw as general partner without first obtaining approval of any unitholder by giving 90 days’ written notice, and such withdrawal will not constitute a violation of our partnership agreement. In addition, our partnership agreement permits our general partner in some instances to sell or otherwise transfer all of its general partner interest in us without the approval of the unitholders. Please read “—Transfer of General Partner Interest.”
Upon withdrawal of our general partner under any circumstances, other than as a result of a transfer by our general partner of all or a part of its general partner interest in us, the holders of a majority of the outstanding classes of common units voting as a single class may select a successor to such withdrawing general partner. If a successor is not elected, or is elected but an opinion of counsel regarding limited liability and tax matters cannot be obtained, we will be dissolved, wound up and liquidated, unless within a specified period of time after that withdrawal, the holders of a unit majority agree in writing to continue our business and to appoint a successor general partner. Please read “—Termination and Dissolution.”
Our general partner may not be removed unless that removal is approved by the vote of the holders of not less than 66 2/3% of the outstanding common units, voting together as a single class, including common units held by our general partner and its affiliates, and we receive an opinion of counsel regarding limited liability and tax matters. Any removal of our general partner is also subject to the approval of a successor general partner by the vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding common units, including common units held by our general partner and its affiliates. The ownership of more than 33 1/3% of the outstanding common units by our general partner and its affiliates (including CVR Services) gives them the ability to prevent our general partner’s removal. As of August 1, 2022, affiliates of our general partner owned approximately 36.8% of the outstanding common units.
In the event of removal of our general partner under circumstances where cause exists or withdrawal of our general partner where that withdrawal violates our partnership agreement, a successor general partner will have the option to purchase the general partner interest of the departing general partner for a cash payment equal to the fair market value of the general partner interest. Under all other circumstances where our general partner withdraws or is removed, the departing general partner will have the option to require the successor general partner to purchase the general partner interest of the departing general partner for its fair market value. In each case, this fair market value will be determined by agreement between the departing general partner and the successor general partner. If no agreement is reached, an independent investment banking firm or other independent expert selected by the departing general partner and the successor general partner will determine the fair market value or, if the departing general partner and the successor general partner cannot agree upon an expert, then an expert chosen by agreement of the experts selected by each of them will determine the fair market value.
If the option described above is not exercised by either the departing general partner or the successor general partner, the departing general partner’s general partner interest in us will automatically convert into common units equal to the fair market value of those interests as determined by an investment banking firm or other independent expert selected in the manner described in the preceding paragraph.
In addition, we will be required to reimburse the departing general partner for all amounts due to the general partner, including, without limitation, all employee-related liabilities, including severance liabilities, incurred in connection with the termination of any employees employed by the departing general partner or its affiliates for our benefit.
Transfer of General Partner Interest
Our general partner may transfer all or any part of its general partner interest in us without unitholder approval; provided, that, as a condition of any such transfer, the transferee must, among other things, assume the rights and duties of our general partner, agree to be bound by the provisions of our partnership agreement and furnish an opinion of counsel regarding limited liability and tax matters.
Our general partner and its affiliates may at any time transfer common units to one or more persons, without unitholder approval.
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Transfer of Ownership Interests in Our General Partner
At any time, the owners of our general partner may sell or transfer all or part of their ownership interests in our general partner to an affiliate or a third party without the approval of our unitholders.
Change of Management Provisions
Our partnership agreement contains specific provisions that are intended to discourage a person or group from attempting to remove CVR GP, LLC as our general partner or otherwise change management. Please read “—Withdrawal or Removal of Our General Partner” for a discussion of certain consequences of the removal of our general partner. If any person or group other than our general partner and its affiliates acquires beneficial ownership of 20% or more of any class of common units, that person or group loses voting rights on all of its common units. This loss of voting rights does not apply in certain circumstances. Please read “—Voting Rights.”
Ineligible Holders; Redemption
If our general partner, with the advice of counsel, determines we are subject to U.S. federal, state or local laws or regulations that create a substantial risk of cancellation or forfeiture of any property that we have an
interest in because of the nationality, citizenship or other related status of any limited partner, then our general partner may adopt such amendments to our partnership agreement as it determines necessary or advisable to:
obtain proof of the nationality, citizenship or other related status of our limited partner (and their owners, to the extent relevant); and
permit us to redeem the common units held by any person whose nationality, citizenship or other related status creates substantial risk of cancellation or forfeiture of any property or who fails to comply with the procedures instituted by the board to obtain proof of the nationality, citizenship or other related status. The redemption price in the case of such redemption will be the average of the daily closing prices per unit for the 20 consecutive trading days immediately prior to the date set for redemption. The redemption price will be paid in cash or by delivery of a promissory note, as determined by our general partner.
To avoid any adverse effect on the maximum applicable rates chargeable to customers by our subsidiary, or in order to reverse an adverse determination that has occurred regarding such maximum rate, our partnership agreement provides our general partner the power to amend the agreement. If our general partner, with the advice of counsel, determines that our not being treated as an association taxable as a corporation or otherwise taxable as an entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, coupled with the tax status (or lack of proof thereof) of one or more of our partners, has, or is reasonably likely to have, a material adverse effect on the maximum applicable rates chargeable to customers by our current or future subsidiaries, then our general partner may adopt such amendments to our partnership agreement as it determines necessary or advisable to:
obtain proof of the U.S. federal income tax status of our partner (and their owners, to the extent relevant); and
permit us to redeem the common units held by any person whose tax status has or is reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on the maximum applicable rates or who fails to comply with the procedures instituted by the general partner to obtain proof of the U.S. federal income tax status. The redemption price in the case of such redemption will be the average of the daily closing prices per unit for the 20 consecutive trading days immediately prior to the date set for redemption. The redemption price will be paid in cash or by delivery of a promissory note, as determined by our general partner.
Meetings; Voting
Except as described below regarding a person or group owning 20% or more of any class of units then outstanding, unitholders who are record holders of common units on the record date will be entitled to notice of, and to vote at, meetings of our unitholders and to act upon matters for which approvals may be solicited. Our general partner does not anticipate that any meeting of unitholders will be called in the foreseeable future. Any action that is required or permitted to be taken by the unitholders may be taken either at a meeting of the unitholders or without a meeting if consents in writing describing the action so taken are signed by holders of the number of units necessary to authorize or take that action at a meeting. Meetings of the unitholders may be
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called by our general partner or by unitholders owning at least 20% of the outstanding units of the class for which a meeting is proposed. Unitholders may vote either in person or by proxy at meetings. The holders of a majority of the outstanding units of the class or classes for which a meeting has been called, represented in person or by proxy, will constitute a quorum unless any action by the unitholders requires approval by holders of a greater percentage of the units, in which case the quorum will be the greater percentage.
Each record holder of a unit has a vote according to his percentage interest in us, although additional limited partner interests having special voting rights could be issued. Please read “Description of Common Units and Preferred Units—Issuance of Additional Partnership Interests.” However, if at any time any person or group, other than our general partner and its affiliates, a direct or subsequently approved transferee of our general partner or their affiliates, or, upon the approval by the general partner, any other unitholder, acquires, in the aggregate, beneficial ownership of 20% or more of any class of units then outstanding, that person or group will lose voting rights on all of its units and the units may not be voted on any matter and will not be considered to be outstanding when sending notices of a meeting of unitholders, calculating required votes, determining the presence of a quorum, or for other similar purposes. Common units held in nominee or street name account will be voted by the broker or other nominee in accordance with the instruction of the beneficial owner unless the arrangement between the beneficial owner and his nominee provides otherwise.
Any notice, demand, request, report, or proxy material required or permitted to be given or made to record holders of common units under our partnership agreement will be delivered to the record holder by us or by the transfer agent.
Status as Limited Partner or Assignee
Except as described above under “—Limited Liability,” the common units will be fully paid, and unitholders will not be required to make additional contributions. By transfer of common units in accordance with our partnership agreement, each transferee of common units will be admitted as a limited partner with respect to the common units transferred when such transfer and admission is reflected in our books and records.
Indemnification
Under our partnership agreement we will indemnify the following persons in most circumstances, to the fullest extent permitted by law, from and against all losses, claims, damages, liabilities, joint or several, expenses (including legal fees and expenses), judgments, fines, penalties, interest, settlements or other amounts arising from any and all threatened, pending or completed claims, demands, actions, suits or proceedings:
(1)
our general partner;
(2)
any departing general partner;
(3)
any person who is or was a director, officer, fiduciary, trustee, manager or managing member of us or our subsidiary, our general partner or any departing general partner;
(4)
any person who is or was a manager, managing member, director, officer, employee, agent, fiduciary or trustee of us of our subsidiary, our general partner, any departing general partner or any of their respective affiliates;
(5)
any person who is or was serving as a director, officer, fiduciary, trustee, manager or managing member of another person owing a fiduciary duty to us or our subsidiary at the request of a general partner or any departing general partner;
(6)
any person who controls or has previously controlled, directly or indirectly, our general partner; or
(7)
any person designated by our general partner.
We must provide this indemnification unless there has been a final, non-appealable judgment by a court of competent jurisdiction determining that these persons acted in bad faith or engaged in fraud or willful misconduct. We must also provide this indemnification for criminal proceedings unless our general partner or these other persons acted with knowledge that their conduct was unlawful.
Any indemnification under these provisions will only be out of our assets. Unless they otherwise agree, our general partner will not be personally liable for, or have any obligation to contribute or loan funds or assets to us
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to enable us to effectuate, indemnification. We may purchase insurance against liabilities asserted against and expenses incurred by persons for our activities, regardless of whether we would have the power to indemnify the person against liabilities under our partnership agreement.
Reimbursement of Expenses
Our partnership agreement requires us to reimburse our general partner for (1) all direct and indirect expenses it incurs or payments it makes on our behalf (including salary, bonus, incentive compensation and other amounts paid to any person, including affiliates of our general partner, to perform services for us or for the general partner in the discharge of its duties to us) and (2) all other expenses reasonably allocable to us or otherwise incurred by our general partner in connection with operating our business (including expenses allocated to our general partner by its affiliates). Our general partner is entitled to determine the expenses that are allocable to us.
Books and Reports
Our general partner is required to keep appropriate books of our business at our principal offices. The books will be maintained for both tax and financial reporting purposes on an accrual basis. For tax and fiscal reporting purposes, our fiscal year is the calendar year.
We will furnish or make available to record holders of our common units, within 105 days after the close of each fiscal year, an annual report containing audited financial statements and a report on those financial statements by our independent public accountants. Except for our fourth quarter, we will also furnish or make available a report containing our unaudited financial statements within 50 days after the close of each quarter. We will be deemed to have made any such report available if we file such report with the SEC on EDGAR or make the report available on a publicly available website which we maintain.
We will furnish each record holder of a unit with tax information reasonably required for federal and state income tax reporting purposes within 90 days after the close of each calendar year. This information is expected to be furnished in summary form so that some complex calculations normally required of partners can be avoided. Our ability to furnish this summary information to unitholders will depend on the cooperation of unitholders in supplying us with specific information. Every unitholder will receive information to assist him in determining his federal and state tax liability and filing his federal and state income tax returns, regardless of whether he supplies us with information.
In addition, CVR Energy has full and complete access to any records relating to our business, and our general partner will cause its officers and independent accountants to be available to discuss our business and affairs with CVR Energy’s officers, agents and employees.
Right to Inspect Our Books and Records
Our partnership agreement provides that a limited partner can, for a purpose reasonably related, as determined by our general partner, to his/her interest as a limited partner, upon reasonable written demand and at his own expense, have furnished to him:
(1)
a current list of the name and last known address of each record holder;
(2)
information as to the amount of cash, and a description and statement of the agreed value of any other capital contribution, contributed or to be contributed by each partner and the date on which each became a partner;
(3)
copies of our partnership agreement, our certificate of limited partnership, related amendments and powers of attorney under which they have been executed;
(4)
information regarding the status of our business and financial condition (provided that obligation shall be satisfied to the extent the limited partner is furnished our most recent annual report and any subsequent quarterly or periodic reports required to be filed (or which would be required to be filed) with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act); and
(5)
any other information regarding our affairs that our general partner determines is just and reasonable.
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Our general partner may, and intends to, keep confidential from the limited partners trade secrets or other information, the disclosure of which our general partner believes in good faith is not in our best interests, could damage the Partnership or its business or that we are required by law or by agreements with third parties to keep confidential.
Registration Rights
Under our partnership agreement, subject to certain limitations, we have agreed to register for resale under the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws any units sold by our general partner or any of its affiliates if an exemption from the registration requirements is not otherwise available. We will not be required to effect more than two registrations pursuant to this provision in any twelve-month period, and our general partner can defer filing a registration statement for up to six months if it determines that this would be in our best interests due to a pending transaction, investigation or other event. We have also agreed that, if we at any time propose to file a registration statement for an offering of partnership interests for cash, we will use all commercially reasonable efforts to include such number of partnership interests in such registration statement as our general partner or any of its affiliates shall request. We are obligated to pay all expenses incidental to these registrations, other than underwriting discounts and commissions. The registration rights in our partnership agreement are applicable with respect to our general partner and its affiliates after it ceases to be a general partner for up to two years following the effective date of such cessation. In addition, we entered into an amended and restated registration rights agreement with CVR Services, effective as of the closing of our initial public offering, pursuant to which we may be required to register the sale of the common units it holds. CVR Services has exercised its registration rights under the amended and restated registration rights agreement in connection with this prospectus.
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CONFLICTS OF INTEREST AND FIDUCIARY DUTIES
Conflicts of Interest
Conflicts of interest exist and may arise in the future as a result of the relationships between our general partner and its affiliates (including Icahn Enterprises L.P., CVR Services, CVR Energy and CVR Refining), on the one hand, and us and our public unitholders, on the other hand. Conflicts may arise as a result of (1) the overlap of directors and officers between our general partner and CVR Energy, which may result in conflicting obligations by these officers and directors, and (2) duties of our general partner to act for the benefit of CVR Energy and its stockholders, which may conflict with our interests and the interests of our public unitholders. The directors and officers of our general partner have fiduciary duties to manage our general partner in a manner beneficial to CVR Services, its owner, and the stockholders of CVR Energy, its indirect parent. At the same time, our general partner has a contractual duty under our partnership agreement to manage us in a manner that is in our best interests.
Whenever a conflict arises between our general partner, on the one hand, and us or any other public unitholder, on the other, our general partner will resolve that conflict. Our partnership agreement contains provisions that replace default fiduciary duties with contractual corporate governance standards as set forth therein.
Our general partner will not be in breach of its obligations under our partnership agreement or its duties to us or our unitholders if the resolution of a conflict is:
approved by the conflicts committee of the board of directors of our general partner, although our general partner is not obligated to seek such approval;
approved by the vote of a majority of the outstanding common units, excluding any units owned by the general partner or any of its affiliates, although our general partner is not obligated to seek such approval;
on terms no less favorable to us than those generally being provided to or available from unrelated third parties; or
fair and reasonable to us, taking into account the totality of the relationships between the parties involved, including other transactions that may be particularly favorable or advantageous to us.
Our general partner may, but is not required to, seek the approval of such resolution from the conflicts committee of its board of directors or from the common unitholders. If our general partner does not seek approval from the conflicts committee and its board of directors determines that the resolution or course of action taken with respect to the conflict of interest satisfies either of the standards set forth in the third and fourth bullet points above, then it will be presumed that, in making its decision, the board of directors acted in good faith, and in any proceeding brought by or on behalf of any limited partner or the Partnership, the person bringing or prosecuting such proceeding will have the burden of overcoming such presumption. Unless the resolution of a conflict is specifically provided for in our partnership agreement, our general partner or the conflicts committee may consider any factors it determines in good faith to consider when resolving a conflict. When our partnership agreement requires someone to act in good faith, it requires that person to reasonably believe that he is acting in the best interests of the Partnership, unless the context otherwise requires. Conflicts of interest could arise in the situations described below, among others.
We rely primarily on the executive officers of our general partner, many of which also serve as the senior management team of CVR Energy and its affiliates, to manage many aspects of our business and affairs.
Although we have entered into a services agreement with CVR Energy under which we compensate CVR Energy for the services of its management, CVR Energy’s management is not required to devote any specific amount of time to our business and may devote a substantial majority of their time to the business of CVR Energy rather than to our business. Moreover, either CVR Energy or our general partner can terminate the services agreement at any time, subject to a 180-day notice period. Our executive chairman is the chief executive officer of CVR Energy. In addition, the executive officers of CVR Energy, including its chief financial officer and general counsel, will face conflicts of interest if decisions arise in which we and CVR Energy have conflicting points of view or interests.
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Our general partner’s affiliates may compete with us.
Our partnership agreement provides that our general partner will be restricted from engaging in any business activities other than acting as our general partner, guaranteeing debt of its affiliates and those activities incidental to its ownership of interests in us. However, except as provided in our partnership agreement, affiliates of our general partner (which includes CVR Energy) are not prohibited from engaging in other businesses or activities, including those that might be in direct competition with us.
The owners of our general partner are not required to share business opportunities with us.
Our partnership agreement provides that the owners of our general partner are permitted to engage in separate businesses which directly compete with us and are not required to share or communicate or offer any potential business opportunities to us even if the opportunity is one that we might reasonably have pursued. The partnership agreement provides that the owners of our general partner will not be liable to us or any unitholder for breach of any duty or obligation by reason of the fact that such person pursued or acquired for itself any business opportunity.
Neither our partnership agreement nor any other agreement requires CVR Energy or its affiliates to pursue a business strategy that favors us or utilizes our assets or dictates what markets to pursue or grow. CVR Energy’s directors and officers have a fiduciary duty to make these decisions in the best interests of the stockholders of CVR Energy, which may be contrary to our interests.
The officers and certain directors of our general partner who are also officers or directors of CVR Energy have fiduciary duties to CVR Energy that may cause them to pursue business strategies that disproportionately benefit CVR Energy or which otherwise are not in our best interests.
Our general partner is allowed to take into account the interests of parties other than us (such as CVR Energy) in exercising certain rights under our partnership agreement.
Our partnership agreement contains provisions that reduce the standards to which our general partner would otherwise be held by state fiduciary duty law. For example, our partnership agreement permits our general partner to make a number of decisions in its individual capacity, as opposed to in its capacity as our general partner. This entitles our general partner to consider only the interests and factors that it desires, and it has no duty or obligation to give any consideration to any interest of, or factors affecting, us, our affiliates or any limited partner. Examples include the exercise of its call right, its voting rights with respect to the units it owns, its registration rights and the determination of whether to consent to any merger or consolidation of the Partnership or amendment of the partnership agreement.
Our general partner has limited its liability in the partnership agreement and replaced default fiduciary duties with contractual corporate governance standards set forth therein, thereby restricting the remedies available to our unitholders for actions that, without such replacement, might constitute breaches of fiduciary duty.
In addition to the provisions described above, our partnership agreement contains provisions that restrict the remedies available to our unitholders for actions that might otherwise constitute breaches of fiduciary duty. For example, our partnership agreement:
permits our general partner to make a number of decisions in its individual capacity, as opposed to its capacity as general partner, thereby entitling our general partner to consider only the interests and factors that it desires, and imposes no duty or obligation on our general partner to give any consideration to any interest of, or factors affecting, us, our affiliates or any limited partner;
provides that our general partner shall not have any liability to us or our unitholders for decisions made in its capacity as general partner so long as it acted in good faith, meaning it believed that the decision was in the best interests of our partnership;
generally provides that affiliated transactions and resolutions of conflicts of interest not approved by the conflicts committee of the board of directors of our general partner and not involving a vote of unitholders must be on terms no less favorable to us than those generally being provided to or available from unrelated third parties or be “fair and reasonable” to us, as determined by our general partner in
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good faith, and that, in determining whether a transaction or resolution is “fair and reasonable,” our general partner may consider the totality of the relationships between the parties involved, including other transactions that may be particularly advantageous or beneficial to us;
provides that our general partner and its officers and directors will not be liable for monetary damages to us or our limited partners for any acts or omissions unless there has been a final and non-appealable judgment entered by a court of competent jurisdiction determining that the general partner or its officers or directors acted in bad faith or engaged in fraud or willful misconduct or, in the case of a criminal matter, acted with knowledge that the conduct was criminal; and
provides that in resolving conflicts of interest, it will be presumed that in making its decision, the general partner or its conflicts committee acted in good faith, and in any proceeding brought by or on behalf of any limited partner or the Partnership, the person bringing or prosecuting such proceeding will have the burden of overcoming such presumption.
By purchasing a common unit, a common unitholder will agree to become bound by the provisions in our partnership agreement, including the provisions discussed above. Please read “—Fiduciary Duties.”
Actions taken by our general partner may affect the amount of cash distributions to unitholders.
The amount of cash that is available for distribution to unitholders is affected by decisions of the board of directors of our general partner regarding such matters as:
the expenses associated with being a public company and other general and administrative expenses;
interest expense and other financing costs related to current and future indebtedness;
amount and timing of asset purchases and sales;
cash expenditures;
borrowings; and
issuance of additional units.
Our partnership agreement permits us to borrow funds to make a distribution on all outstanding units, and further provides that we and our subsidiaries may borrow funds from our general partner and its affiliates.
Our general partner and its affiliates are not required to own any of our common units. If our general partner’s affiliates were to sell all or substantially all of their common units, this would heighten the risk that our general partner would act in ways that are more beneficial to itself than our common unitholders.
Affiliates of our general partner own 36.8% of our outstanding units, but there is no requirement that they continue to do so. The general partner and its affiliates are permitted to sell all of their common units, subject to certain limitations contained in our partnership agreement. In addition, the current owners of our general partner may sell the general partner interest to an unrelated third party. If neither the general partner nor its affiliates
owned any of our common units, this would heighten the risk that our general partner would act in ways that are more beneficial to itself than our common unitholders.
We reimburse our general partner and its affiliates, including CVR Energy, for expenses.
We reimburse our general partner and its affiliates, including CVR Energy, for costs incurred in managing and operating us, including overhead costs incurred by CVR Energy in rendering corporate staff and support services to us. Our partnership agreement provides that the board of directors of our general partner will determine in good faith the expenses that are allocable to us and that reimbursement of overhead to CVR Energy as described above is fair and reasonable to us. The services agreement does not contain any cap on the amount we may be required to pay pursuant to this agreement.
Common units are subject to our general partner’s call right.
If at any time our general partner and its affiliates own more than 80% of the common units, our general partner will have the right, which it may assign to any of its affiliates or to us, but not the obligation, to acquire all, but not less than all, of the common units held by public unitholders at a price not less than their
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then-current market price, as calculated pursuant to the terms of our partnership agreement. As a result, you may be required to sell your common units at an undesirable time or price and may not receive any return on your investment. You may also incur a tax liability upon a sale of your common units. Our general partner is not obligated to obtain a fairness opinion regarding the value of the common units to be repurchased by it upon exercise of the call right. There is no restriction in our partnership agreement that prevents our manager from issuing additional common units and exercising its call right. Our general partner may use its own discretion, free of fiduciary duty restrictions, in determining whether to exercise this right. Please read “Description of Our Partnership Agreement—Call Right.”
Contracts between us, on the one hand, and our general partner and its affiliates, on the other, will not be the result of arm’s-length negotiations.
Our partnership agreement allows our general partner to determine, in good faith, any amounts to pay itself or its affiliates for any services rendered to us. Our general partner may also enter into additional contractual arrangements with any of its affiliates on our behalf. Neither our partnership agreement nor any of the other agreements, contracts and arrangements between us and our general partner and its affiliates is or will be the result of arm’s-length negotiations.
Our partnership agreement generally provides that if any affiliated transaction, such as an agreement, contract or arrangement between us and our general partner and its affiliates, is:
approved by a majority of the members of our conflicts committee;
approved by a majority of outstanding common units (excluding those owned by our general partner and its affiliates);
on terms no less favorable to us than those generally being provided to or available from unrelated third parties; or
“fair and reasonable” to us, taking into account the totality of the relationships between the parties involved (including other transactions that may be particularly favorable or advantageous to us)
it will be deemed approved by all of our partners, and deemed to not constitute a breach of our partnership agreement or any duty thereunder or existing at law.
The prosecution of any disputes or disagreements that could arise in the future under a contract or other agreement between us and our general partner would give rise to an automatic conflict of interest, as a common group of executive officers is likely to be on both sides of the transaction.
Our general partner and its affiliates will have no obligation to permit us to use any of its facilities or assets, except as may be provided in contracts entered into specifically dealing with that use. There is no obligation of our general partner and its affiliates to enter into any contracts of this kind.
Our general partner intends to limit its liability regarding our obligations.
Our general partner intends to limit its liability under future contractual arrangements (and has done so under our ABL Credit Facility) so that the other party has recourse only to our assets and not against our general partner or its assets. Our partnership agreement provides that any action taken by our general partner to limit its liability or our liability is not a breach of our general partner’s fiduciary duties, even if we could have obtained terms that are more favorable without the limitation on liability.
Common unitholders will have no right to enforce obligations of our general partner and its affiliates under agreements with us.
Any agreements between us, on the one hand, and our general partner and its affiliates, on the other, will not grant to the unitholders, separate and apart from us, the right to enforce the obligations of our general partner and its affiliates in our favor.
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Except in limited circumstances, our general partner has the power and authority to conduct our business without limited partner approval.
Under our partnership agreement, our general partner has full power and authority to do all things, other than those items that require unitholder approval or on such terms as it determines to be necessary or appropriate to conduct our business including, but not limited to, the following:
the making of any expenditures, the lending or borrowing of money, the assumption or guarantee of, or other contracting for, indebtedness and other liabilities, the issuance of evidences of indebtedness, including indebtedness that is convertible into securities of the Partnership, and the incurring of any other obligations;
the making of tax, regulatory and other filings, or rendering of periodic or other reports to governmental or other agencies having jurisdiction over our business or assets;
the acquisition, disposition, mortgage, pledge, encumbrance, hypothecation or exchange of any or all of our assets or the merger or other combination of us with or into another person;
the negotiation, execution and performance of any contracts, conveyances or other instruments;
the distribution of partnership cash;
the selection and dismissal of employees and agents, outside attorneys, accountants, consultants and contractors and the determination of their compensation and other terms of employment or hiring;
the maintenance of insurance for our benefit and the benefit of our partners;
the formation of, or acquisition of an interest in, and the contribution of property and the making of loans to, any further limited or general partnerships, joint ventures, corporations, limited liability companies or other entities;
the control of any matters affecting our rights and obligations, including the bringing and defending of actions at law or in equity and otherwise engaging in the conduct of litigation, arbitration or mediation and the incurring of legal expense and the settlement of claims and litigation;
the indemnification of any person against liabilities and contingencies to the extent permitted by law;
the purchase, sale or other acquisition or disposition of our securities, or the issuance of additional options, rights, warrants and appreciation rights relating to our securities; and
the entering into of agreements with any of its affiliates to render services to us or to itself in the discharge of its duties as our general partner.
Please read “Description of Our Partnership Agreement” for information regarding the voting rights of common unitholders.
Fiduciary Duties
The Delaware Act provides that Delaware limited partnerships may, in their partnership agreements, restrict, expand or eliminate the fiduciary duties owed by general partners to other partners and the Partnership. Our partnership agreement has eliminated these default fiduciary standards; instead, our general partner is accountable to us and our unitholders pursuant to the detailed contractual standards set forth in our partnership agreement. The duties owed to unitholders by our general partner are thus prescribed by our partnership agreement and not by default fiduciary duties.
We have adopted these standards to allow our general partner or its affiliates to engage in transactions with us that would otherwise be prohibited by state law fiduciary standards and to take into account the interests of other parties in addition to our interests when resolving conflicts of interest. Without such deviation from the default standards, such transactions could result in violations of our general partner’s state law fiduciary duties. We believe this is appropriate and necessary because the board of directors of our general partner has duties to manage our general partner in a manner beneficial to CVR Services, its owner, and the stockholders of CVR Energy, its indirect parent, and duties to manage us in a manner that is in our best interests. Without these modifications, our general partner’s ability to make decisions involving conflicts of interest would be restricted. These modifications also enable our general partner to take into consideration all parties involved in the proposed
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action, so long as the resolution is in our best interests. Further, these modifications enable our general partner to attract and retain experienced and capable directors. However, these modifications disadvantage the common unitholders because they restrict the rights and remedies that would otherwise be available to unitholders for actions that, without such modifications, might constitute breaches of fiduciary duty, as described below, and permit our general partner to take into account the interests of third parties in addition to our interests when resolving conflicts of interest.
The following is a summary of (1) the default fiduciary duties under the Delaware Act, (2) the standards contained in our partnership agreement that replace the default fiduciary duties and (3) certain rights and remedies of limited partners contained in the Delaware Act.
State law fiduciary duty standards
Fiduciary duties are generally considered to include an obligation to act in good faith and with due care and loyalty. The duty of care, in the absence of a provision in a partnership agreement providing otherwise, would generally require a general partner to act for the Partnership in the same manner as a prudent person would act on his own behalf. The duty of loyalty, in the absence of a provision in a partnership agreement providing otherwise, would generally require that any action taken or transaction engaged in be entirely fair to the Partnership.
Partnership agreement modified standards
Our partnership agreement contains provisions that waive or consent to conduct by our general partner and its affiliates that might otherwise raise issues as to compliance with fiduciary duties or applicable law. For example, our partnership agreement provides that when our general partner is acting in its capacity as our general partner, as opposed to in its individual capacity, it must act in “good faith” and will not be subject to any other standard under applicable law. In addition, when our general partner is acting in its individual capacity, as opposed to in its capacity as our general partner, it may act without any fiduciary obligation to us or the unitholders whatsoever. These contractual standards reduce the obligations to which our general partner would otherwise be held.
 
Our partnership agreement generally provides that affiliated transactions and resolutions of conflicts of interest not involving a vote of unitholders and that are not approved by the conflicts committee of the board of directors of our general partner must be:
 
 • on terms no less favorable to us than those generally being provided to or available from unrelated third parties; or
 
 • “fair and reasonable” to us, taking into account the totality of the relationships between the parties involved (including other transactions that may be particularly favorable or advantageous to us).
 
All conflicts of interest disclosed in this prospectus (including our agreements and other arrangements with CVR Energy) have been approved by all of our partners under the terms of our partnership agreement.
 
 
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If our general partner does not seek approval from the conflicts committee of its board of directors or the common unitholders, and its board of directors determines that the resolution or course of action taken with respect to the conflict of interest satisfies either of the standards set forth in the bullet points above, then it will be presumed that, in making its decision, the board of directors, which may include board members affected by the conflict of interest, acted in good faith, and in any proceeding brought by or on behalf of any limited partner or the Partnership, the person bringing or prosecuting such proceeding will have the burden of overcoming such presumption. These standards reduce the obligations to which our general partner would otherwise be held.
In order to become one of our limited partners, a common unitholder is required to agree to be bound by the provisions in our partnership agreement, including the provisions discussed above. Please read “Description of Our Common Units—Transfer of Common Units.” This is in accordance with the policy of the Delaware Act favoring the principle of freedom of contract and the enforceability of partnership agreements. The failure of a limited partner or assignee to sign a partnership agreement does not render our partnership agreement unenforceable against that person.
Under our partnership agreement, we must indemnify our general partner and its officers, directors and managers, to the fullest extent permitted by law, against liabilities, costs and expenses incurred by our general partner or these other persons. We must provide this indemnification unless there has been a final and non-appealable judgment by a court of competent jurisdiction determining that these persons acted in bad faith or engaged in fraud or willful misconduct. We also must provide this indemnification for criminal proceedings unless our general partner or these other persons acted with knowledge that their conduct was unlawful. Thus, our general partner could be indemnified for its negligent or grossly negligent acts if it meets the requirements set forth above. To the extent that these provisions purport to include indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act, in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is contrary to public policy and therefore unenforceable.
Related Party Transactions
The board of directors of our general partner has adopted a Related Party Transaction Policy, which is designed to monitor and ensure the proper review, approval, ratification and disclosure of related party transactions involving us. This policy applies to any transaction, arrangement, or relationship (or any series of similar or related transactions, arrangements, or relationships) in which we are a participant, and the amount involved exceeds $120,000, and in which any related party had or will have a direct or indirect material interest. At the discretion of the board of directors of our general partner in light of the circumstances, a proposed related party transaction may be determined by the board of directors of our general partner in its entirety or by a “conflicts committee” meeting the definitional requirements for such a committee under our partnership agreement (the “Conflicts Committee”). After appropriate review (which will include consideration of the financial terms of such transaction, the board of directors of our general partner or the Conflicts Committee, as the case may be, may approve or ratify a related party transaction if such transaction is consistent with the Related Party Transaction Policy and is on terms that, taken as a whole, are no less favorable to us than could be obtained in an arm’s-length transaction with an unrelated third-party, unless the board of directors of our general partner or the Conflicts Committee, as the case may be, otherwise determines that the transaction is not in our best interests. Related party transactions involving compensation will be approved by the board of directors of our general partner in its entirety or by the Compensation Committee of the board of directors of our general partner.
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SELLING UNITHOLDER
This prospectus covers the offering for resale from time to time, in one or more offerings, of up to 3,892,000 common units owned by the selling unitholder listed in the table below. The common units were issued to CVR Services in connection with our initial public offering on April 7, 2011. For information about our relationships with the selling unitholder and its affiliates, see “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, which is incorporated by reference herein.
The selling unitholder, which is an affiliate of ours, may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and, as a result, may be deemed to be offering securities, indirectly, on our behalf.
The following table sets forth information relating to the selling unitholder as of August 1, 2022 based on information supplied to us by the selling unitholder on or prior to that date. We have not sought to verify such information. Information concerning the selling unitholder may change over time, and if necessary, we will supplement this prospectus accordingly. The selling unitholder is offering all of the common units it currently owns through this prospectus. The selling unitholder may hold or acquire at any time common units in addition to those offered by this prospectus and may have acquired additional common units since the date on which the information reflected herein was provided to us. In addition, the selling unitholder may have sold, transferred or otherwise disposed of some or all of its common units since the date on which the information reflected herein was provided to us and may in the future sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of some or all of its common units in private placement transactions exempt from or not subject to the registration requirements of the Securities Act.
 
Common Units
Beneficially Owned
Prior to the
Offering
Maximum Number
of Common Units
Offered Hereby(2)
Percentage of
Common Units
Beneficially Owned
Following the
Offering(3)(4)
Name of Selling Unitholder
Number
Percentage
Number
Number
Percentage
CVR Services, LLC(1)
3,892,000
36.8%
3,892,000
(1)
CVR Services is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of CVR Energy, with an address at 2277 Plaza Drive, Suite 500, Sugar Land, Texas 77479. CVR Energy may be deemed to have direct beneficial ownership of the common units held by CVR Services by virtue of its control of CVR Services. The directors of CVR Energy are Jaffrey A. Firestone, Hunter C. Gary, David L. Lamp, Stephen Mongillo, James M. Strock and David Willetts.
(2)
Pursuant to Rule 416 of the Securities Act, this registration statement also shall cover any additional common units that become issuable, in connection with the common units registered for resale hereby, as a result of any unit splits, unit distributions or similar transactions that result in an increase in the number of our common units outstanding.
(3)
Based on 10,569,637 common units outstanding as of August 1, 2022.
(4)
Assumes that the selling unitholder will sell all of the common units offered hereby. We cannot assure you that the selling unitholder will sell all or any of the common units.
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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES
Tax Consequences of Ownership of Common Units
This section is a summary of the material tax considerations that may be relevant to prospective common unitholders who are individual citizens or residents of the United States and, unless otherwise noted in the following discussion, is the opinion of Baker Botts L.L.P., counsel to our general partner and us, insofar as it relates to legal conclusions with respect to matters of U.S. federal income tax law. This section is based upon current provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, existing and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code (the “Treasury Regulations”) and current administrative rulings and court decisions, all of which are subject to change. Later changes in these authorities may cause the tax consequences to vary substantially from the consequences described below. Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this section to “us” or “we” are references to CVR Partners, LP and our operating subsidiaries.
The following discussion does not comment on all federal income tax matters affecting us or our unitholders and does not describe the application of the alternative minimum tax that may be applicable to certain unitholders. Moreover, the discussion focuses on common unitholders who are individual citizens or residents of the U.S. and has only limited application to corporations, estates, entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes, trusts, nonresident aliens, U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States or other unitholders subject to specialized tax treatment, such as banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions, tax-exempt institutions, foreign persons (including, without limitation, controlled foreign corporations, passive foreign investment companies and non-U.S. persons eligible for the benefits of an applicable income tax treaty with the U.S.), IRAs, real estate investment trusts (REITs) or mutual funds, dealers in securities or currencies, traders in securities, U.S. persons whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar, persons holding their units as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction” or other risk reduction transaction, and persons deemed to sell their units under the constructive sale provisions of the Code. In addition, the discussion only comments to a limited extent on state, local and foreign tax consequences. Accordingly, we encourage each prospective unitholder to consult his own tax advisor in analyzing the state, local and foreign tax consequences particular to him of the ownership or disposition of units and potential changes in applicable tax laws.
All statements as to matters of federal income tax law and legal conclusions with respect thereto, but not as to factual matters, contained in this section, unless otherwise noted, are the opinion of Baker Botts L.L.P. and are based on the accuracy of the representations made by us.
We will rely on opinions of Baker Botts L.L.P. An opinion of counsel represents only that counsel’s best legal judgment and does not bind the IRS or the courts. Accordingly, the opinions and statements made herein may not be sustained by a court if contested by the IRS. Any contest of this sort with the IRS may materially and adversely impact the market for our common units and the prices at which our units trade. In addition, the costs of any contest with the IRS, principally legal, accounting and related fees, will result in a reduction in our cash available for distribution and thus will be borne indirectly by our unitholders. Additionally, if the IRS makes an audit adjustment to any of our income tax returns, our unitholders will directly or indirectly bear any taxes (including any applicable penalties and interest) resulting from such audit adjustment (please read “—Administrative Matters—Information Returns and Audit Procedures”). Furthermore, the tax treatment of us, or of an investment in us, may be significantly modified by future legislative or administrative changes or court decisions. Any modifications may or may not be retroactively applied.
For the reasons described below, Baker Botts L.L.P. has not rendered an opinion with respect to the following specific federal income tax issues: (i) the treatment of a unitholder whose common units are loaned to a short seller to cover a short sale of units (please read “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Treatment of Short Sales”); (ii) whether our monthly convention for allocating taxable income and losses is permitted by existing Treasury Regulations (please read “—Disposition of Common Units—Allocations Between Transferors and Transferees”); (iii) whether our method for taking into account Section 743 adjustments is sustainable in certain cases (please read “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Section 754 Election” and “—Uniformity of Common Units”); and (iv) whether our use of simplifying conventions for making adjustments to “book” basis and relevant allocations is permitted by existing Treasury Regulations (please read “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Allocation of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction” and “—Uniformity of Common Units”).
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Partnership Status
A partnership is not a taxable entity and generally incurs no federal income tax liability. Instead, each partner of a partnership is required to take into account his share of items of income, gain, loss and deduction of the partnership in computing his federal income tax liability, regardless of whether cash distributions are made to him by the partnership. Distributions by a partnership to a partner are generally not taxable to the partnership or the partner unless the amount of cash distributed to him is in excess of the partner’s adjusted basis in his partnership interest.
Section 7704 of the Code provides that publicly traded limited partnerships will, as a general rule, be taxed as corporations. However, an exception, referred to as the “Qualifying Income Exception,” exists with respect to publicly traded limited partnerships of which 90% or more of the gross income for every taxable year consists of “qualifying income.” Qualifying income includes income and gains derived from the transportation, processing, storage and marketing of crude oil, natural gas and refined products thereof. Other types of qualifying income include interest (other than from a financial business), dividends, gains from the sale of real property and gains from the sale or other disposition of capital assets held for the production of income that otherwise constitutes qualifying income. We estimate that less than 5% of our current gross income is not qualifying income; however, this estimate could change from time to time. Based upon and subject to this estimate, the factual representations made by us and our general partner and a review of the applicable legal authorities, Baker Botts L.L.P. is of the opinion that at least 90% of our current gross income constitutes qualifying income. The portion of our income that is qualifying income may change from time to time.
The IRS has made no determination as to our status or the status of our operating subsidiaries for federal income tax purposes. Instead, we will rely on the opinion of Baker Botts L.L.P. on such matters. It is the opinion of Baker Botts L.L.P. that, based upon the Code, its regulations, published revenue rulings and court decisions and the representations described below that:
We will be classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes; and
Each of our operating subsidiaries will be treated as a partnership or will be disregarded as an entity separate from us for federal income tax purposes.
In rendering its opinion, Baker Botts L.L.P. has relied on factual representations made by us and our general partner. The representations made by us and our general partner upon which Baker Botts L.L.P. has relied include:
Neither we nor the operating subsidiaries has elected or will elect to be treated, or is otherwise treated, as a corporation for federal income tax purposes;
Income treated as “qualifying income” on the basis of a private letter ruling is earned pursuant to processes, activities and arrangements consistent with the facts and circumstances described in the private letter ruling request and in the private letter ruling issued by the IRS; and
For each taxable year, more than 90% of our gross income has been and will be income of the type that Baker Botts L.L.P. has opined or will opine is “qualifying income” within the meaning of Section 7704(d) of the Code, including income earned pursuant to the processes described in our private letter rulings.
We believe these representations are true and expect that these representations will continue to be true in the future.
The present federal income tax treatment of publicly traded partnerships or an investment in the units of publicly traded partnerships may be modified by administrative or legislative action or judicial interpretation at any time. For example, from time to time, the President and members of the U.S. Congress propose and consider substantive changes to the existing federal income tax laws that affect publicly traded partnerships, such as proposals eliminating the Qualifying Income Exception upon which we rely for our treatment as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. One such recent proposal by the Biden Administration would repeal the application of the qualifying income exception to partnerships with income and gains from activities relating to fossil fuels for taxable years beginning after 2027. We are unable to predict whether this or any other such
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changes will ultimately be enacted, but it is possible that a change in law could affect us and may, if enacted, be applied retroactively. Any such changes could affect our ability to meet the Qualifying Income Exception and could negatively impact the value of an investment in our common units.
On January 24, 2017, the U.S. Department of the Treasury issued final regulations (the “Final Regulations”) regarding qualifying income under Section 7704(d)(1)(E) of the Code which relates to the Qualifying Income Exception. The Final Regulations apply to income earned in a taxable year beginning on or after January 19, 2017. The Final Regulations include a “reserved” paragraph for fertilizer, which the U.S. Department of the Treasury plans to address in future proposed and final Treasury Regulations. The Final Regulations provide for a ten-year transition period during which certain taxpayers that either obtained a favorable private letter ruling or treated income under a reasonable interpretation of the statute or prior proposed regulations as qualifying income may continue to treat such income as qualifying income. We have obtained favorable private letter rulings from the IRS in the past as to what constitutes “qualifying income” within the meaning of Section 7704(d)(1)(E) of the Code and we expect to rely upon these private letter rulings for purposes of the ten-year transition rule contained in the Final Regulations. Thus, at this time and through the transition period, we believe that the Final Regulations will not significantly impact the amount of our gross income that we are able to treat as qualifying income. Our ability to meet the Qualifying Income Exception following the transition period will depend on whether further guidance is issued and what that guidance provides.
If we fail to meet the Qualifying Income Exception, other than a failure that is determined by the IRS to be inadvertent and that is cured within a reasonable time after discovery (in which case the IRS may also require us to make adjustments with respect to our unitholders or pay other amounts), we will be treated as if we had transferred all of our assets, subject to our liabilities, to a newly formed corporation, on the first day of the year in which we fail to meet the Qualifying Income Exception, in return for stock in that corporation, and then distributed that stock to the unitholders in liquidation of their interests in us. This deemed contribution and liquidation should be tax-free to unitholders and us so long as we, at that time, do not have liabilities in excess of the tax basis of our assets. Thereafter, we would be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes.
If we were treated as an association taxable as a corporation in any taxable year, either as a result of a failure to meet the Qualifying Income Exception or otherwise, our items of income, gain, loss and deduction would be reflected only on our tax return rather than being passed through to our unitholders, and our net income would be taxed to us at corporate rates. In addition, any distribution made to a unitholder would be treated as taxable dividend income, to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, or, in the absence of earnings and profits, a nontaxable return of capital, to the extent of the unitholder’s tax basis in his common units, or taxable capital gain, after the unitholder’s tax basis in his common units is reduced to zero. Accordingly, taxation as a corporation could result in a material reduction in a unitholder’s cash flow and after-tax return and may result in a substantial reduction of the value of the units.
The discussion below is based on Baker Botts L.L.P.’s opinion that we will be classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.
Limited Partner Status
Common unitholders who are admitted as limited partners of CVR Partners, LP will be treated as partners of CVR Partners, LP for federal income tax purposes. Also, unitholders whose common units are held in street name or by a nominee and who have the right to direct the nominee in the exercise of all substantive rights attendant to the ownership of their units will be treated as partners of CVR Partners, LP for federal income tax purposes.
A beneficial owner of common units whose units have been transferred to a short seller to complete a short sale would appear to lose his status as a partner with respect to those units for federal income tax purposes. Please read “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Treatment of Short Sales.”
Income, gains, losses or deductions would not appear to be reportable by a unitholder who is not a partner for federal income tax purposes, and any cash distributions received by a unitholder who is not a partner for federal income tax purposes would therefore appear to be fully taxable as ordinary income. These holders are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the tax consequences to them of holding common units in CVR Partners, LP. The references to “unitholders” in the discussion that follows are to persons who are treated as partners in CVR Partners, LP for federal income tax purposes.
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Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership
Flow-Through of Taxable Income
Subject to the discussion below under “—Entity-Level Collections” and “—Administrative Matters—Information Returns and Audit Procedures,” we will not pay any federal income tax. Instead, each common unitholder will be required to report on his income tax return his share of our income, gains, losses and deductions without regard to whether we make cash distributions to him. Consequently, we may allocate income to a unitholder even if he has not received a cash distribution. The income we allocate to unitholders will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Each unitholder will be required to include in income his allocable share of our income, gains, losses and deductions for our taxable year ending with or within his taxable year. Our taxable year ends on December 31.
Treatment of Distributions
Distributions by us to a common unitholder generally will not be taxable to the unitholder for federal income tax purposes, except to the extent the amount of any such cash distribution exceeds his tax basis in his common units immediately before the distribution. Our cash distributions in excess of a unitholder’s tax basis generally will be considered to be gain from the sale or exchange of the common units, taxable in accordance with the rules described under “—Disposition of Common Units.” Any reduction in a unitholder’s share of our liabilities for which no partner, including the general partner, bears the economic risk of loss, known as “nonrecourse liabilities,” will be treated as a distribution by us of cash to that unitholder. To the extent our distributions cause a unitholder’s “at-risk” amount to be less than zero at the end of any taxable year, he must recapture any losses deducted in previous years. Please read “—Limitations on Deductibility of Losses.”
A decrease in a common unitholder’s percentage interest in us because of our issuance of additional units will decrease his share of our nonrecourse liabilities, and thus will result in a corresponding deemed distribution of cash. This deemed distribution may constitute a non-pro rata distribution. A non-pro rata distribution of money or property may result in ordinary income to a unitholder, regardless of his tax basis in his common units, if the distribution reduces the unitholder’s share of our “unrealized receivables,” including depreciation recapture and/or substantially appreciated “inventory items,” each as defined in the Code, and collectively, “Section 751 Assets.” To that extent, the unitholder will be treated as having been distributed his proportionate share of the Section 751 Assets and then having exchanged those assets with us in return for the non-pro rata portion of the actual distribution made to him. This latter deemed exchange will generally result in the unitholder’s realization of ordinary income, which will equal the excess of (i) the non-pro rata portion of that distribution over (ii) the unitholder’s tax basis (generally zero) for the share of Section 751 Assets deemed relinquished in the exchange.
Basis of Common Units
A unitholder’s initial tax basis for his common units will be the amount he paid for the common units plus his share of our nonrecourse liabilities. That basis will be increased by his share of our income and by any increases in his share of our nonrecourse liabilities. That basis will be decreased, but not below zero, by distributions from us, by the unitholder’s share of our losses, by any decreases in his share of our nonrecourse liabilities and by his share of our expenditures that are not deductible in computing taxable income and are not required to be capitalized, and by any excess business interest allocated to the unitholder. Immediately prior to the disposition of common units, a unitholder’s tax basis in such common units will be increased by the amount of any excess business interest that has not been deducted by him due to applicable limitations. Please read “—Limitations on Deductibility of Losses.” A unitholder will have a share, generally based on his share of profits, of our nonrecourse liabilities. Please read “—Disposition of Common Units—Recognition of Gain or Loss.”
Limitations on Deductibility of Losses
The deduction by a common unitholder of his share of our losses will be limited to the tax basis in his units and, in the case of an individual unitholder, estate, trust, or corporate unitholder (if more than 50% of the value of the corporate unitholder’s stock is owned directly or indirectly by or for five or fewer individuals or some tax-exempt organizations) to the amount for which the unitholder is considered to be “at risk” with respect to our activities, if that is less than his tax basis. A common unitholder subject to these limitations must recapture losses deducted in previous years to the extent that distributions cause his at-risk amount to be less than zero at
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the end of any taxable year. Losses disallowed to a unitholder or recaptured as a result of these limitations will carry forward and will be allowable as a deduction to the extent that his at-risk amount is subsequently increased, provided such losses do not exceed such common unitholder’s tax basis in his common units. Upon the taxable disposition of a unit, any gain recognized by a unitholder can be offset by losses that were previously suspended by the at-risk limitation but may not be offset by losses suspended by the basis limitation. Any loss previously suspended by the at-risk limitation in excess of that gain would no longer be utilizable.
In general, a common unitholder will be at risk to the extent of the tax basis of his units, excluding any portion of that basis attributable to his share of our nonrecourse liabilities, reduced by (i) any portion of that basis representing amounts otherwise protected against loss because of a guarantee, stop loss agreement or other similar arrangement and (ii) any amount of money he borrows to acquire or hold his units, if the lender of those borrowed funds owns an interest in us, is related to the unitholder or can look only to the units for repayment. A unitholder’s at-risk amount will increase or decrease as the tax basis of the unitholder’s units increases or decreases, other than tax basis increases or decreases attributable to increases or decreases in his share of our nonrecourse liabilities.
In addition to the basis and at-risk limitations on the deductibility of losses, the passive loss limitations generally provide that individuals, estates, trusts and some closely-held corporations and personal service corporations can deduct losses from passive activities, which are generally trade or business activities in which the taxpayer does not materially participate, only to the extent of the taxpayer’s income from those passive activities. The passive loss limitations are applied separately with respect to each publicly traded limited partnership. Consequently, any passive losses we generate will only be available to offset our passive income generated in the future and will not be available to offset income from other passive activities or investments, including our investments or a unitholder’s investments in other publicly traded limited partnerships, or the unitholder’s salary, active business or other income. Passive losses that are not deductible because they exceed a unitholder’s share of income we generate may be deducted in full when he disposes of his entire investment in us in a fully taxable transaction with an unrelated party. The passive loss limitations are applied after other applicable limitations on deductions, including the at-risk rules and the basis limitation.
A unitholder’s share of our net income may be offset by any of our suspended passive losses, but it may not be offset by any other current or carryover losses from other passive activities, including those attributable to other publicly traded limited partnerships.
For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020 and before January 1, 2026, an “excess business loss” limitation further limits the deductibility of losses by taxpayers other than corporations. An excess business loss is the excess (if any) of a taxpayer’s aggregate deductions for the taxable year that are attributable to the trades or businesses of such taxpayer (determined without regard to the excess business loss limitation) over the aggregate gross income or gain of such taxpayer for the taxable year that is attributable to such trades or businesses plus a threshold amount. The threshold amount is equal to $250,000 or, for taxpayers filing a joint return, $500,000. Disallowed excess business losses are treated as a net operating loss carryover to the following tax year. Any losses we generate that are allocated to a common unitholder and not otherwise limited by the basis, at risk or passive loss limitations will be included in the determination of such unitholder’s aggregate trade or business deductions. Consequently, any losses we generate that are not otherwise limited will only be available to offset a unitholder’s other trade or business income plus an amount of non-trade or business income equal to the applicable threshold amount. Thus, except to the extent of the threshold amount, our losses that are not otherwise limited may not offset a unitholder’s non-trade or business income (such as salaries, fees, interest, dividends and capital gains). This excess business loss limitation will be applied after the passive activity loss limitation.
Limitations on Interest Deductions
In general, we are entitled to a deduction for interest paid or accrued on indebtedness properly allocable to our trade or business during our taxable year. Our deduction for this “business interest” is limited to the sum of our business interest income and 30% of our “adjusted taxable income.” For the purposes of this limitation, our adjusted taxable income is computed without regard to any business interest or business interest income. Beginning in 2022, our adjusted taxable income for this purpose is reduced by any deduction allowable for depreciation, amortization, or depletion. This limitation is first applied at the partnership level and any deduction for business interest is taken into account in determining our non-separately stated taxable income or loss. Then,
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in applying this business interest limitation at the partner level, the adjusted taxable income of each of our unitholders is determined without regard to such unitholder’s distributive share of any of our items of income, gain, deduction, or loss and is increased by such unitholder’s distributive share of our excess taxable income, which is generally equal to the excess of 30% of our adjusted taxable income over the amount of our deduction for business interest for a taxable year.
To the extent our deduction for business interest is not limited, we will allocate the full amount of our deduction for business interest among our unitholders in accordance with their percentage interests in us. To the extent our deduction for business interest is limited, the amount of any disallowed deduction for business interest will also be allocated to each unitholder in accordance with their percentage interest in us, but such amount of “excess business interest” will not be currently deductible. Subject to certain limitations and adjustments to a unitholder’s basis in its common units, this excess business interest may be carried forward and deducted by a unitholder in a future taxable year.
The deductibility of a non-corporate taxpayer’s “investment interest expense” is generally limited to the amount of that taxpayer’s “net investment income.” Investment interest expense includes:
interest on indebtedness properly allocable to property held for investment;
our interest expense attributed to portfolio income; and
the portion of interest expense incurred to purchase or carry an interest in a passive activity to the extent attributable to portfolio income.
The computation of a common unitholder’s investment interest expense will take into account interest on any margin account borrowing or other loan incurred to purchase or carry a unit. Net investment income includes gross income from property held for investment and amounts treated as portfolio income under the passive loss rules, less deductible expenses, other than interest, directly connected with the production of investment income, but generally does not include gains attributable to the disposition of property held for investment or (if applicable) qualified dividend income. The IRS has indicated that the net passive income earned by a publicly traded limited partnership will be treated as investment income to its unitholders. In addition, the unitholder’s share of our portfolio income will be treated as investment income.
Entity-Level Collections
If we are required or elect under applicable law to pay any federal, state, local or foreign income tax on behalf of any common unitholder or our general partner or any former unitholder, we are authorized to pay those taxes from our funds. That payment, if made, will be treated as a distribution of cash to the unitholder on whose behalf the payment was made. If the payment is made on behalf of a person whose identity cannot be determined, we are authorized to treat the payment as a distribution to all current unitholders. We are authorized to amend our partnership agreement in the manner necessary to maintain uniformity of intrinsic tax characteristics of units and to adjust later distributions, so that after giving effect to these distributions, the priority and characterization of distributions otherwise applicable under our partnership agreement is maintained as nearly as is practicable. Payments by us as described above could give rise to an overpayment of tax on behalf of an individual unitholder in which event the unitholder would be required to file a claim in order to obtain a credit or refund. Please read “—Administrative Matters—Information Returns and Audit Procedures.”
Allocation of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction
In general, if we have a net profit, our items of income, gain, loss and deduction will be allocated among our common unitholders in accordance with their percentage interests in us. If we have a net loss, that loss will generally be allocated among all of our common unitholders in accordance with their percentage interests in us to the extent of their positive capital accounts.
Section 704 (c) of the Code and related Treasury Regulations require us to adjust the “book” basis of all assets held by us prior to an issuance of additional units to equal their fair market values at the time of a unit issuance. Purchasers of units in an offering are entitled to calculate tax depreciation and amortization deductions and other relevant tax items with respect to our assets based upon that “book” basis, which effectively puts purchasers in that offering in the same position as if our assets had a tax basis equal to their fair market value at the time of unit issuance. This may have the effect of decreasing the amount of our tax depreciation or
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amortization deductions thereafter allocated to purchasers of units in an earlier offering or of requiring purchasers of units in an earlier offering to thereafter recognize “remedial income” rather than depreciation and amortization deductions. In this context, we use the term “book” as that term is used in Treasury Regulations under Section 704 of the Code. The “book” basis assigned to our assets for this purpose may not be the same as the book value of our property for financial reporting purposes.
It may not be administratively feasible to make the relevant adjustments to “book” basis and the relevant Section 704 (c) allocations separately each time we issue units, particularly in the case of small or frequent unit issuances. If that is the case, we may use simplifying conventions to make those adjustments and allocations, which may include the aggregation of certain issuances of units. Our counsel, Baker Botts L.L.P., is unable to opine as to the validity of such conventions.
In addition, items of recapture income will be allocated to the extent possible to the unitholder who was allocated the deduction giving rise to the treatment of that gain as recapture income in order to minimize the recognition of ordinary income by some unitholders. Finally, although we do not expect that our operations will result in the creation of negative capital accounts, if negative capital accounts nevertheless result, items of our income and gain will be allocated in an amount and manner sufficient to eliminate the negative balance as quickly as possible.
An allocation of items of our income, gain, loss or deduction, other than an allocation required under the Section 704 (c) principles described above, will generally be given effect for federal income tax purposes in determining a partner’s share of an item of income, gain, loss or deduction only if the allocation has “substantial economic effect.” In any other case, a partner’s share of an item will be determined on the basis of his interest in us, which will be determined by taking into account all the facts and circumstances, including:
his relative contributions to us;
the interests of all the partners in profits and losses;
the interest of all the partners in cash flows; and
the rights of all the partners to distributions of capital upon liquidation.
Baker Botts L.L.P. is of the opinion that, with the exception of the issue described above with respect to our simplifying conventions and the issues described in “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Section 754 Election” and “—Disposition of Common Units—Allocations Between Transferors and Transferees,” and “—Uniformity of Common Units,” allocations under our partnership agreement will be given effect for federal income tax purposes in determining a partner’s share of an item of income, gain, loss or deduction.
Treatment of Short Sales
A common unitholder whose units are loaned to a “short seller” to cover a short sale of units may be considered as having disposed of those units. If so, he would no longer be treated for tax purposes as a partner with respect to those units during the period of the loan and may recognize gain or loss from the disposition. As a result, during this period:
any of our income, gain, loss or deduction with respect to those units would not be reportable by the unitholder;
any cash distributions received by the unitholder as to those units would be fully taxable; and
while not entirely free from doubt, all of these distributions would appear to be ordinary income.
Because there is no direct or indirect controlling authority on the issue relating to partnership interests, Baker Botts L.L.P. has not rendered an opinion regarding the tax treatment of a unitholder whose common units are loaned to a short seller to cover a short sale of common units; therefore, unitholders desiring to assure their status as partners and avoid the risk of gain recognition from a loan to a short seller are urged to consult a tax advisor to discuss whether it is advisable to modify any applicable brokerage account agreements to prohibit their brokers from borrowing and loaning their units. The IRS has previously announced that it is studying issues relating to the tax treatment of short sales of partnership interests. Please read “—Disposition of Common Units—Recognition of Gain or Loss.”
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Tax Rates
The highest marginal U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to ordinary income of individuals is 37% and the highest marginal U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to long-term capital gains (generally, capital gains on certain assets held for more than twelve months) of individuals is 20%.
For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, subject to certain limitations, a non-corporate common unitholder is entitled to a deduction equal to 20% of the sum of:
the net amount of such unitholder’s allocable share of items of our income, gain, deduction and loss which are attributable to our conduct of a trade or business in the United States (generally excluding certain items related to our investment activities, including capital gains and dividends, which are subject to a federal income tax rate of 20%, and certain payments made to the unitholder for services rendered to us); and
any gain recognized by such unitholder on the disposition of his common units to the extent such gain is attributable to certain Section 751 Assets, including depreciation recapture, depletion recapture and “inventory items” we own.
Prospective unitholders should consult their tax advisors regarding this deduction and the applicable limitations. These rates, and the deduction, are subject to change by new legislation at any time.
In addition, a 3.8% Medicare tax, or NIIT, applies to certain net investment income earned by individuals, estates and trusts. For these purposes, net investment income generally includes a unitholder’s allocable share of our income and gain realized by a unitholder from a sale of units (without taking into account the 20% deduction discussed above). In the case of an individual, the tax is imposed on the lesser of (i) the unitholder’s net investment income and (ii) the amount by which the unitholder’s modified adjusted gross income exceeds $250,000 (if the unitholder is married and filing jointly or a surviving spouse), $125,000 (if the unitholder is married and filing separately) or $200,000 (in any other case). In the case of an estate or trust, the tax is imposed on the lesser of (i) undistributed net investment income and (ii) the excess adjusted gross income over the dollar amount at which the highest income tax bracket applicable to an estate or trust begins.
Section 754 Election
We have made an election permitted by Section 754 of the Code. That election is irrevocable without the consent of the IRS. The election will generally permit us to adjust a common unit purchaser’s tax basis in our assets (“inside basis”) under Section 743(b) of the Code to reflect his purchase price. This election does not apply with respect to a person who purchases common units directly from us. The Section 743(b) adjustment belongs to the purchaser and not to other unitholders. For purposes of this discussion, the inside basis in our assets with respect to a unitholder will be considered to have two components: (i) his share of our tax basis in our assets, or common basis, and (ii) his Section 743(b) adjustment to that basis.
The timing of deductions attributable to a Section 743(b) adjustment to our common basis will depend upon a number of factors, including the nature of the assets to which the adjustment is allocable, the extent to which the adjustment offsets any Section 704(c) type gain or loss with respect to an asset and certain elections we make as to the manner in which we apply Section 704(c) principles with respect to an asset with respect to which the adjustment is allocable. Please read “—Allocation of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction.” The timing of these deductions may affect the uniformity of our units. Please read “—Uniformity of Common Units.”
A Section 754 election is advantageous if the transferee’s tax basis in his units is higher than the units’ share of the aggregate tax basis of our assets immediately prior to the transfer. In that case, as a result of the election, the transferee would have, among other items, a greater amount of depreciation deductions and his share of any gain or loss on a sale of our assets would be less. Conversely, a Section 754 election is disadvantageous if the transferee’s tax basis in his units is lower than those units’ share of the aggregate tax basis of our assets immediately prior to the transfer. Thus, the fair market value of the units may be affected either favorably or unfavorably by the election. A basis adjustment is required regardless of whether a Section 754 election is made in the case of a transfer of an interest in us if we have a substantial built-in loss immediately after the transfer, or if we distribute property and have a substantial basis reduction. Generally a built-in loss or a basis reduction is substantial if it exceeds $250,000. In addition, a built-in loss is substantial if the transferee would be allocated a net loss in excess of $250,000 on a hypothetical sale of our assets for their fair market value immediately after a transfer of the interest at issue.
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Subject to certain limitations, a Section 743(b) adjustment may create additional depreciable basis that is eligible for bonus depreciation under Section 168(k) to the extent the adjustment is attributable to depreciable property and not to goodwill or real property. However, because we may not be able to determine whether transfers of our units satisfy all of the eligibility requirements and due to other limitations regarding administrability, we may elect out of the bonus depreciation provisions of Section 168(k) with respect to basis adjustments under Section 743(b).
The calculations involved in the Section 754 election are complex and will be made on the basis of assumptions as to the value of our assets and other matters. For example, the allocation of the Section 743(b) adjustment among our assets must be made in accordance with the Code. The IRS could seek to reallocate some or all of any Section 743(b) adjustment allocated by us to our tangible assets to goodwill instead. Goodwill, as an intangible asset, is generally nonamortizable or amortizable over a longer period of time or under a less accelerated method than our tangible assets. We cannot assure you that the determinations we make will not be successfully challenged by the IRS and that the deductions resulting from them will not be reduced or disallowed altogether. Should the IRS require a different basis adjustment to be made, and should, in our opinion, the expense of compliance exceed the benefit of the election, we may seek permission from the IRS to revoke our Section 754 election. If permission is granted, a subsequent purchaser of units may be allocated more income than he would have been allocated had the election not been revoked.
Tax Treatment of Operations
Accounting Method and Taxable Year
We use the year ending December 31 as our taxable year and the accrual method of accounting for federal income tax purposes. Each common unitholder will be required to include in income his share of our income, gain, loss and deduction for our taxable year ending within or with his taxable year. In addition, a unitholder who has a taxable year ending on a date other than December 31 and who disposes of all of his units following the close of our taxable year but before the close of his taxable year must include his share of our income, gain, loss and deduction in income for his taxable year, with the result that he will be required to include in income for his taxable year his share of more than twelve months of our income, gain, loss and deduction. Please read “—Disposition of Common Units—Allocations Between Transferors and Transferees.”
Tax Basis, Depreciation and Amortization
The tax basis of our assets will be used for purposes of computing depreciation and cost recovery deductions and, ultimately, gain or loss on the disposition of these assets. The federal income tax burden associated with the difference between the fair market value of our assets and their tax basis immediately prior to an offering will be borne by all of our unitholders as of that time. Please read “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Allocation of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction.”
To the extent allowable, we may elect to use the depreciation and cost recovery methods, including bonus depreciation to the extent available, that will result in the largest deductions being taken in the early years after assets subject to these allowances are placed in service. Part of or all of the goodwill, going concern value and other intangible assets we have acquired or will acquire in connection with an offering may not produce any amortization deductions because of the application of the anti-churning restrictions of Section 197 of the Code. Please read “—Uniformity of Common Units.” Property we subsequently acquire or construct may be depreciated using accelerated methods permitted by the Code.
If we dispose of depreciable property by sale, foreclosure or otherwise, all or a portion of any gain, determined by reference to the amount of depreciation previously deducted and the nature of the property, may be subject to the recapture rules and taxed as ordinary income rather than capital gain. Similarly, a common unitholder who has taken cost recovery or depreciation deductions with respect to property we own will likely be required to recapture some or all of those deductions as ordinary income upon a sale of his interest in us. Please read “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Allocation of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction” and “—Disposition of Common Units—Recognition of Gain or Loss.”
The costs we incur in selling our units (called “syndication expenses”) must be capitalized and cannot be deducted currently, ratably or upon our termination. There are uncertainties regarding the classification of costs as organization expenses, which may be amortized by us, and as syndication expenses, which may not be amortized by us. The underwriting discounts and commissions we incur will be treated as syndication expenses.
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We are allowed a first-year bonus depreciation deduction equal to 100% of the adjusted basis of certain depreciable property acquired and placed in service after September 27, 2017 and before January 1, 2023. For property placed in service during subsequent years, the deduction is phased down by 20% per year until December 31, 2026. This depreciation deduction applies to both new and used property. However, use of the deduction with respect to used property is subject to certain anti-abuse restrictions, including the requirement that the property be acquired from an unrelated party. We can elect to forgo the depreciation bonus and use the alternative depreciation system for any class of property for a taxable year.
Valuation and Tax Basis of Our Properties
The federal income tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of common units will depend in part on our estimates of the relative fair market values, and the initial tax bases, of our assets. Although we may from time to time consult with professional appraisers regarding valuation matters, we will make many of the relative fair market value estimates ourselves. These estimates and determinations of basis are subject to challenge and will not be binding on the IRS or the courts. If the estimates of fair market value or basis are later found to be incorrect, the character and amount of items of income, gain, loss or deductions previously reported by unitholders might change, and unitholders might be required to adjust their tax liability for prior years and incur interest and penalties with respect to those adjustments.
Disposition of Common Units
Recognition of Gain or Loss
Gain or loss will be recognized on a sale of common units equal to the difference between the amount realized and the unitholder’s tax basis for the units sold. A unitholder’s amount realized will be measured by the sum of the cash or the fair market value of other property received by him plus his share of our nonrecourse liabilities. Because the amount realized includes a unitholder’s share of our nonrecourse liabilities, the gain recognized on the sale of units could result in a tax liability in excess of any cash received from the sale.
Prior distributions from us that in the aggregate were in excess of cumulative net taxable income for a common unit and, therefore, decreased a unitholder’s tax basis in that unit will, in effect, become taxable income if the unit is sold at a price greater than the unitholder’s tax basis in that unit, even if the price received is less than his original cost.
Except as noted below, gain or loss recognized by a unitholder, other than a “dealer” in units, on the sale or exchange of a unit will generally be taxable as capital gain or loss. Capital gain recognized by an individual on the sale of units held for more than twelve months will generally be taxed at the U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to long-term capital gains. However, a portion of this gain or loss, which will likely be substantial, will be separately computed and taxed as ordinary income or loss under Section 751 of the Code to the extent attributable to assets giving rise to depreciation recapture or other “unrealized receivables” or to “inventory items” we own. The term “unrealized receivables” includes potential recapture items, including depreciation recapture. Ordinary income attributable to unrealized receivables, inventory items and depreciation recapture may exceed net taxable gain realized upon the sale of a unit and may be recognized even if there is a net taxable loss realized on the sale of a unit. Thus, a unitholder may recognize both ordinary income and a capital loss upon a sale of units. Capital losses may offset capital gains and no more than $3,000 of ordinary income, in the case of individuals, and may only be used to offset capital gains in the case of corporations. Both ordinary income and capital gain recognized on a sale of units may be subject to the NIIT in certain circumstances. Please read “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Tax Rates.”
The IRS has ruled that a partner who acquires interests in a partnership in separate transactions must combine those interests and maintain a single adjusted tax basis for all those interests. Upon a sale or other disposition of less than all of those interests, a portion of that tax basis must be allocated to the interests sold using an “equitable apportionment” method, which generally means that the tax basis allocated to the interest sold equals an amount that bears the same relation to the partner’s tax basis in his entire interest in the partnership as the value of the interest sold bears to the value of the partner’s entire interest in the partnership.
Treasury Regulations under Section 1223 of the Code allow a selling unitholder who can identify common units transferred with an ascertainable holding period to elect to use the actual holding period of the units transferred. Thus, according to the ruling discussed above, a common unitholder will be unable to select high or
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low basis units to sell as would be the case with corporate stock, but, according to the Treasury Regulations, he may designate specific units sold for purposes of determining the holding period of units transferred. A unitholder electing to use the actual holding period of common units transferred must consistently use that identification method for all subsequent sales or exchanges of units. A common unitholder considering the purchase of additional units or a sale of units purchased in separate transactions is urged to consult his tax advisor as to the possible consequences of this ruling and application of the Treasury Regulations.
Specific provisions of the Code affect the taxation of some financial products and securities, including partnership interests, by treating a taxpayer as having sold an “appreciated” partnership interest, one in which gain would be recognized if it were sold, assigned or terminated at its fair market value, if the taxpayer or related persons enter(s) into:
a short sale;
an offsetting notional principal contract; or
a futures or forward contract;
in each case, with respect to the partnership interest or substantially identical property.
Moreover, if a taxpayer has previously entered into a short sale, an offsetting notional principal contract or a futures or forward contract with respect to the partnership interest, the taxpayer will be treated as having sold that position if the taxpayer or a related person then acquires the partnership interest or substantially identical property. The Secretary of the Treasury is also authorized to issue regulations that treat a taxpayer that enters into transactions or positions that have substantially the same effect as the preceding transactions as having constructively sold the financial position.
Allocations Between Transferors and Transferees
In general, our taxable income or loss will be determined annually, will be prorated on a monthly basis and will be subsequently apportioned among the unitholders in proportion to the number of units owned by each of them as of the opening of the applicable exchange on the first business day of the month, which we refer to in this prospectus as the “Allocation Date.” However, gain or loss realized on a sale or other disposition of our assets or, in the discretion of the general partner, any other extraordinary item of income, gain, loss or deduction will be allocated among the unitholders on the Allocation Date in the month in which such income, gain, loss or deduction is recognized. As a result, a unitholder transferring units may be allocated income, gain, loss and deduction realized after the date of transfer.
Simplifying conventions are contemplated by the Code and most publicly traded partnerships use similar simplifying conventions. The Treasury Regulations allow a similar monthly simplifying convention; however, such regulations do not specifically authorize the use of the proration method we have adopted. Accordingly, Baker Botts L.L.P. is unable to opine on the validity of this method of allocating income and deductions between transferee and transferor unitholders. If this method is not allowed under the Treasury Regulations, or only applies to transfers of less than all of the unitholder’s interest, our taxable income or losses could be reallocated among our unitholders. We are authorized to revise our method of allocation between transferee and transferor unitholders, as well as among unitholders whose interests vary during a taxable year, to conform to a method permitted under future Treasury Regulations. A common unitholder who disposes of units prior to the record date set for a cash distribution for that quarter will be allocated items of our income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to the month of disposition but will not be entitled to receive a cash distribution for that period.
Notification Requirements
A common unitholder who sells any of his units is generally required to notify us in writing of that sale within 30 days after the sale (or, if earlier, January 15 of the year following the sale). A purchaser of units who purchases units from another unitholder is also generally required to notify us in writing of that purchase within 30 days after the purchase. Upon receiving such notifications, we are required to notify the IRS of that transaction and to furnish specified information to the transferor and transferee. Failure to notify us of a purchase may, in some cases, lead to the imposition of penalties. However, these reporting requirements do not apply to a sale by an individual who is a citizen of the U.S. and who effects the sale or exchange through a broker who will satisfy such requirements.
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Uniformity of Common Units
Because we cannot match transferors and transferees of common units, we must maintain uniformity of the economic and tax characteristics of the units to a purchaser of these units. In the absence of uniformity, we may be unable to completely comply with a number of federal income tax requirements, both statutory and regulatory. Any non-uniformity could have an impact upon the value of our units. The timing of deductions attributable to Section 743(b) adjustments to the common basis of our assets with respect to persons purchasing units from another unitholder may affect the uniformity of our units. Please read “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Section 754 Election.”
For example, some types of depreciable assets are not subject to the typical rules governing depreciation (under Section 168 of the Code) or amortization (under Section 197 of the Code). If we were to acquire any assets of that type, the timing of a common unit purchaser’s deductions with respect to Section 743(b) adjustments to the common basis of those assets might differ depending upon when and to whom the unit he purchased was originally issued. We do not currently expect to acquire any assets of that type. However, if we were to acquire a material amount of assets of that type, we intend to adopt tax positions as to those assets that will not result in any such lack of uniformity. Any such tax positions taken by us might result in allocations to some unitholders of smaller depreciation deductions than they would otherwise be entitled to receive. Baker Botts L.L.P. has not rendered an opinion with respect to those types of tax positions. Moreover, the IRS might challenge those tax positions. If we took such a tax position and the IRS successfully challenged the position, the uniformity of our units might be affected, and the gain from the sale of our units might be increased without the benefit of additional deductions. Please read “—Disposition of Common Units—Recognition of Gain or Loss.”
In addition, as described above at “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Allocation of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction,” if we aggregate multiple issuances of common units for purposes of making adjustments to “book” basis and related tax allocations, we will treat each of our common units as having the same capital account balance, regardless of the price actually paid by each purchaser of units in the aggregated offerings. Our counsel, Baker Botts L.L.P., is unable to opine as to validity of such an approach. We do not expect the number of affected units, or the differences between the purchase price of a unit and the initial capital account balance assigned to the unit, to be material, and we do not expect this convention to have a material effect upon the trading of our units.
Tax-Exempt Organizations and Other Investors
Ownership of common units by employee benefit plans, other tax-exempt organizations, non-resident aliens, foreign corporations and other foreign persons raises issues unique to those investors and, as described below to a limited extent, may have substantially adverse tax consequences to them. If you are a tax-exempt entity or a non-U.S. person, you should consult your tax advisor before investing in our common units.
Employee benefit plans and most other organizations exempt from federal income tax, including individual retirement accounts and other retirement plans, are subject to federal income tax on unrelated business taxable income. Virtually all of our income allocated to a unitholder that is a tax-exempt organization will be unrelated business taxable income and will be taxable to it. Further, a tax exempt organization with more than one unrelated trade or business (including by attribution from investments in a partnership, such as us, that is engaged in one or more unrelated trades or businesses) must compute its unrelated business taxable income separately for each such trade or business, including for purposes of determining any net operating loss deduction. As a result, it may not be possible for tax exempt organizations to use losses from an investment in us to offset taxable income from another unrelated trade or business.
Non-resident aliens and foreign corporations, trusts or estates that own common units will be considered to be engaged in business in the U.S. because of the ownership of units. As a consequence, they will be required to file federal tax returns to report their share of our income, gain, loss or deduction and pay federal income tax at regular rates on their share of our net income or gain. Moreover, under rules applicable to publicly traded limited partnerships, our quarterly distribution to foreign unitholders will be subject to withholding at the highest applicable effective tax rate. Each foreign unitholder must obtain a taxpayer identification number from the IRS and submit that number to our transfer agent on a Form W-8BEN or applicable substitute form in order to obtain credit for these withholding taxes. A change in applicable law may require us to change these procedures.
In addition, because a foreign corporation that owns common units will be treated as engaged in a U.S. trade or business, that corporation may be subject to the U.S. branch profits tax at a rate of 30%, in addition to
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regular federal income tax, on its share of our earnings and profits, as adjusted for changes in the foreign corporation’s “U.S. net equity,” that is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business. That tax may be reduced or eliminated by an income tax treaty between the U.S. and the country in which the foreign corporate unitholder is a “qualified resident.” In addition, this type of unitholder is subject to special information reporting requirements under Section 6038C of the Code.
A non-U.S. common unitholder who sells or otherwise disposes of a unit will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain realized from the sale or disposition of that unit to the extent the gain is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. unitholder. Gain realized by a non-U.S. unitholder from the sale of its interest in a partnership that is engaged in a trade or business in the United States will be considered to be “effectively connected” with a U.S. trade or business to the extent that gain would be recognized upon a sale by the partnership of all its assets would be “effectively connected” with a U.S. trade or business. Thus, a substantial portion of a non-U.S. unitholder’s gain from the sale or other disposition of our units would be treated as effectively connected with such unitholder’s indirect U.S. trade or business constituted by its investment in us and would be subject to U.S. federal income tax. As a result of the effectively connected income rules described above, the exclusion from U.S. taxation under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act for gain from the sale of partnership units regularly traded on an established securities market will not prevent a non-U.S. unitholder from being subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain from the sale or disposition of its units to the extent such gain is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. We expect a substantial portion of the gain from the sale or disposition of our units to be treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business.
Moreover, the transferee of an interest in a partnership that is engaged in a U.S. trade or business is generally required to withhold 10% of the amount realized by the transferor unless the transferor certifies that it is not a foreign person, and we are required to deduct and withhold from the transferee amounts that should have been withheld by the transferees but were not withheld. However, the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the IRS have suspended these rules for transfers of certain publicly traded partnership interests, including transfers of our common units, that occur before January 1, 2023. Under recently finalized Treasury Regulations, such withholding will be required on open market transactions, but in the case of a transfer made through a broker, a partner’s share of liabilities will be excluded from the amount realized. In addition, the obligation to withhold will be imposed on the broker instead of the transferee, and we will generally not be required to withhold from the transferee amounts that should have been withheld by the transferee but were not withheld. These withholding obligations will apply to transfers of our common units occurring on or after January 1, 2023.
Administrative Matters
Information Returns and Audit Procedures
We intend to furnish to each common unitholder, within 90 days after the close of each calendar year, specific tax information, including a Schedule K-1, which describes his share of our income, gain, loss and deduction for our preceding taxable year. In preparing this information, which will not be reviewed by counsel, we will take various accounting and reporting positions, some of which have been mentioned earlier, to determine each unitholder’s share of income, gain, loss and deduction. We cannot assure you that those positions will yield a result that conforms to the requirements of the Code, Treasury Regulations or administrative interpretations of the IRS. Neither we nor Baker Botts L.L.P. can assure prospective unitholders that the IRS will not successfully contend in court that those positions are impermissible. Any challenge by the IRS could negatively affect the value of the units.
The IRS may audit our federal income tax information returns. Adjustments resulting from an IRS audit may require each common unitholder to adjust a prior year’s tax liability, and possibly may result in an audit of his return. Any audit of a unitholder’s return could result in adjustments not related to our returns as well as those related to our returns.
Partnerships generally are treated as separate entities for purposes of federal tax audits, judicial review of administrative adjustments by the IRS and tax settlement proceedings. The tax treatment of partnership items of income, gain, loss and deduction are determined in a partnership proceeding rather than in separate proceedings with the partners.
If the IRS makes an audit adjustment to any of our income tax returns, it may assess and collect any taxes (including any applicable penalties and interest) resulting from such audit adjustment directly from us, unless we
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elect to have our general partner and unitholders take the audit adjustment into account in accordance with their interests in us during the taxable year under audit. Similarly, for such taxable years, if the IRS makes an audit adjustment to an income tax return filed by an entity in which we are a member or partner, it may assess and collect any taxes (including penalties and interest) resulting from such audit adjustment directly from such entity. We may elect to have our general partner and unitholders take any material audit adjustment into account in accordance with their interests in us during the taxable year under audit, but there can be no assurance that such election, if made, will be effective in all circumstances. With respect to an audit adjustment as to an entity in which we are a member or partner, we may not be able to have our general partner and our unitholders take such audit adjustment into account in accordance with their interests in us during the taxable year under audit, and if we are unable to do so, our then current unitholders may bear some or all of the tax liability resulting from such audit adjustment, even if such unitholders did not own our units during the taxable year under audit. If, as a result of any such audit adjustment, we are required to make payments of taxes, penalties, and interest, we may require our unitholders and former unitholders to reimburse us for such taxes (including any applicable penalties or interest) or, if we are required to bear such payment our cash available for distribution to our unitholders might be substantially reduced.
In the event the IRS makes an audit adjustment to our income tax returns and we do not or cannot shift the liability to our unitholders in accordance with their interests in us during the taxable year under audit, we will generally have the ability to request that the IRS reduce the determined underpayment owed by the partnership by reducing the suspended passive loss carryovers of our unitholders (without any compensation from us to such unitholders), to the extent such underpayment is attributable to a net decrease in passive activity losses allocable to certain partners. Such reduction, if approved by the IRS, will be binding on any affected unitholders.
We are required to designate a partner, or other person, with a substantial presence in the United States as our partnership representative (“Partnership Representative”). The Partnership Representative has the sole authority to act on our behalf for purposes of, among other things, U.S. federal income tax audits and judicial review of administrative adjustments by the IRS.
Our partnership agreement names our general partner (or its designee) as the Partnership Representative. Any actions taken by us or by the Partnership Representative on our behalf with respect to, among other things, U.S. federal income tax audits and judicial review of administrative adjustments by the IRS, will be binding on us and all of the unitholders.
Additional Withholding Requirements
Withholding taxes may apply to certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” (as specially defined in the Code) and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on interest, dividends and other fixed or determinable annual or periodical gains, profits and income from sources within the U.S. (“FDAP Income”), or gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of any property of a type which can produce interest or dividends from sources within the U.S. (“Gross Proceeds”) paid to a foreign financial institution or to a “non-financial foreign entity” (as specially defined in the Code), unless (i) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting, (ii) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner or (iii) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (i) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain U.S. persons or U.S.-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to noncompliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country, or future Treasury Regulations, may modify these requirements.
Generally, these rules apply to current payments of FDAP Income and, while such rules would have applied to payments of Gross Proceeds on or after January 1, 2019, recently proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate these withholding taxes on payments of Gross Proceeds entirely. Taxpayers may rely generally on these proposed U.S. Treasury regulations until they are revoked or final U.S. Treasury regulations are issued. Thus, to the extent we have FDAP Income that is not treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business (please read “—Tax-Exempt Organizations and Other Investors”), common unitholders who are foreign financial institutions
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or certain other non-US entities may be subject to withholding on distributions they receive from us, or their distributive share of our income, pursuant to the rules described above.
Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the potential application of these withholding provisions to their investment in our common units.
Nominee Reporting
Persons who hold an interest in us as a nominee for another person are required to furnish to us:
the name, address and taxpayer identification number of the beneficial owner and the nominee;
whether the beneficial owner is:
a person that is not a U.S. person;
a foreign government, an international organization or any wholly owned agency or instrumentality of either of the foregoing; or
a tax-exempt entity;
the amount and description of units held, acquired or transferred for the beneficial owner; and
specific information including the dates of acquisitions and transfers, means of acquisitions and transfers, and acquisition cost for purchases, as well as the amount of net proceeds from dispositions.
Brokers and financial institutions are required to furnish additional information, including whether they are U.S. persons and specific information on units they acquire, hold or transfer for their own account. A penalty per failure, with a significant maximum penalty per calendar year, is imposed by the Code for failure to report that information to us. The nominee is required to supply the beneficial owner of the units with the information furnished to us.
Accuracy-Related Penalties
An additional tax equal to 20% of the amount of any portion of an underpayment of tax that is attributable to one or more specified causes, including negligence or disregard of rules or regulations, substantial understatements of income tax and substantial valuation misstatements, is imposed by the Code. No penalty will be imposed, however, for any portion of an underpayment if it is shown that there was a reasonable cause for that portion and that the taxpayer acted in good faith regarding that portion.
For individuals, a substantial understatement of income tax in any taxable year exists if the amount of the understatement exceeds the greater of 10% of the tax required to be shown on the return for the taxable year or $5,000 ($10,000 for most corporations). The amount of any understatement subject to penalty generally is reduced if any portion is attributable to a position adopted on the return:
for which there is, or was, “substantial authority”; or
as to which there is a reasonable basis and the pertinent facts of that position are disclosed on the return.
If any item of income, gain, loss or deduction included in the distributive shares of unitholders might result in that kind of an “understatement” of income for which no “substantial authority” exists, we must disclose the pertinent facts on our return. In addition, we will make a reasonable effort to furnish sufficient information for unitholders to make adequate disclosure on their returns and to take other actions as may be appropriate to permit unitholders to avoid liability for this penalty. More stringent rules apply to “tax shelters,” which we do not believe includes us, or any of our investments, plans or arrangements.
A substantial valuation misstatement exists if (a) the value of any property, or the adjusted basis of any property, claimed on a tax return is 150% or more of the amount determined to be the correct amount of the valuation or adjusted basis, (b) the price for any property or services (or for the use of property) claimed on any such return with respect to any transaction between persons described in Code Section 482 is 200% or more (or 50% or less) of the amount determined under Section 482 to be the correct amount of such price, or (c) the net Code Section 482 transfer price adjustment for the taxable year exceeds the lesser of $5.0 million or 10% of the taxpayer’s gross receipts. No penalty is imposed unless the portion of the underpayment attributable to a substantial valuation misstatement exceeds $5,000 ($10,000 for most corporations). If the valuation claimed on a
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return is 200% or more than the correct valuation or certain other thresholds are met, the penalty imposed increases to 40%. We do not anticipate making any valuation misstatements.
In addition, the 20% accuracy-related penalty also applies to any portion of an underpayment of tax that is attributable to transactions lacking economic substance. To the extent that such transactions are not disclosed, the penalty imposed is increased to 40%. Additionally, there is no reasonable cause defense to the imposition of this penalty to such transactions.
Reportable Transactions
If we were to engage in a “reportable transaction,” we (and possibly you and others) would be required to make a detailed disclosure of the transaction to the IRS. A transaction may be a reportable transaction based upon any of several factors, including the fact that it is a type of tax avoidance transaction publicly identified by the IRS as a “listed transaction” or that it produces certain kinds of losses for partnerships, individuals, S corporations, and trusts in excess of $2.0 million in any single year, or $4.0 million in any combination of six successive tax years. Our participation in a reportable transaction could increase the likelihood that our federal income tax information return (and possibly your tax return) would be audited by the IRS. Please read “—Administrative Matters—Information Returns and Audit Procedures.”
Moreover, if we were to participate in a reportable transaction with a significant purpose to avoid or evade tax, or in any listed transaction, you may be subject to the following additional consequences:
accuracy-related penalties with a broader scope, significantly narrower exceptions, and potentially greater amounts than described above at “—Accuracy-Related Penalties”;
for those persons otherwise entitled to deduct interest on federal tax deficiencies, non-deductibility of interest on any resulting tax liability; and
in the case of a listed transaction, an extended statute of limitations.
We do not expect to engage in any “reportable transactions.”
State, Local, Foreign and Other Tax Considerations
In addition to federal income taxes, common unitholders will be subject to other taxes, such as state, local and foreign income taxes, unincorporated business taxes, and estate, inheritance or intangible taxes that may be imposed by the various jurisdictions in which we do business or own property or in which the unitholder is a resident. We currently do business or own property in many states, several of which impose a personal income tax on individuals and certain of which also impose an income tax on corporations and other entities. Moreover, in the future we may also own property or do business in other states that impose income or similar taxes on non-resident individuals and corporations. Although an analysis of those various taxes is not presented here, each prospective unitholder should consider their potential impact on his investment in us. Although a unitholder may not be required to file a return and pay taxes in some jurisdictions if its income from that jurisdiction falls below the filing and payment requirement, such unitholder may be required to file income tax returns and to pay income taxes in other jurisdictions in which we do business or own property and may be subject to penalties for failure to comply with those requirements. In some jurisdictions, tax losses may not produce a tax benefit in the year incurred and may not be available to offset income in subsequent taxable years. Some of the jurisdictions may require us, or we may elect, to withhold a percentage of income from amounts to be distributed to a unitholder who is not a resident of the jurisdiction. Withholding, the amount of which may be greater or less than a particular unitholder’s income tax liability to the jurisdiction, generally does not relieve a nonresident unitholder from the obligation to file an income tax return. Amounts withheld will be treated as if distributed to unitholders for purposes of determining the amounts distributed by us. Please read “—Tax Consequences of Common Unit Ownership—Entity-Level Collections.” Based on current law and our estimate of our future operations, our general partner anticipates that any amounts required to be withheld will not be material.
It is the responsibility of each unitholder to investigate the legal and tax consequences, under the laws of pertinent states, localities and foreign jurisdictions, of his investment in us. Accordingly, each prospective unitholder is urged to consult his own tax counsel or other advisor with regard to those matters. Further, it is the responsibility of each unitholder to file all state, local and foreign, as well as U.S. federal tax returns, that may be required of such unitholder. Baker Botts L.L.P. has not rendered an opinion on the state tax, local tax, alternative minimum tax or foreign tax consequences of an investment in us.
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INVESTMENT IN CVR PARNTERS BY BENEFIT PLANS
An equity investment in us by a “benefit plan” may raise certain issues under the U.S. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), and the Code. Certain of these issues are described below. No attempt is made in this summary to describe issues that may arise under federal, state or local laws that are not preempted by ERISA (for example, any federal, state or local laws applicable to governmental plans or other benefit plans excluded from coverage under ERISA). In addition, this summary does not discuss the laws of any country other than the United States. Prospective investors that may be subject to any such laws should therefore consult their professional advisors with regard to such laws.
Benefit Plans
ERISA and the Code regulate “benefit plans,” which are broadly defined in Section 3(3) of ERISA as “employee benefit plans” and Section 4975(e)(1) of the Code as “plans.” For purposes of this summary, the term “benefit plan” includes, but is not limited to, qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans established by an employer or employer organization (also referred to herein as qualified retirement plans) and individual retirement accounts (“IRAs”).
Fiduciaries
ERISA and the Code impose certain duties on persons who are fiduciaries of such benefit plans and prohibit certain transactions involving the assets of such benefit plans and their fiduciaries or certain parties with an interest in the benefit plans. Under ERISA and the Code, any person who (a) exercises discretionary authority or control over the management of the benefit plan or exercises any authority or control over the management or disposition of the assets of the benefit plan, (b) renders investment advice to the benefit plan for a fee or other compensation, (c) has discretionary authority or responsibility in the administration of the benefit plan, or (d) otherwise is designated to carry out the foregoing, generally is considered to be a fiduciary of the benefit plan.
Duties of a Fiduciary
Under ERISA, a benefit plan fiduciary is required to discharge its duties with respect to such benefit plan solely in the interest of participants and beneficiaries of the benefit plan, and for the exclusive purpose of (a) providing benefits to participants and beneficiaries, and (b) defraying reasonable expenses of the benefit plan. Such duties must be discharged with such care, skill, prudence, and diligence under the circumstances then prevailing as a prudent person acting in like capacity and familiar with such matters would use in the conduct of an enterprise of a similar character and with similar aims. A fiduciary must also (a) diversify the investments of the benefit plan so as to minimize the risk of large losses, unless under the circumstances it is clearly prudent not to do so, and (b) invest assets of the benefit plan in accordance with the documents and instruments governing the benefit plan to the extent such documents and instruments are consistent with the provisions of ERISA.
In considering an investment of a portion of the assets of any benefit plan in us, a benefit plan fiduciary must discharge its duties in accordance with ERISA and the Code. Such duties include, but are not limited to, determining, in light of the risk factors inherent in an investment in us, whether the investment is in accordance with the documents and instruments governing the benefit plan and the applicable provisions of ERISA or the Code. For instance, the benefit plan fiduciary should consider whether the investment is permitted by the applicable plan documents and governing instruments and would be considered as prudent under ERISA and whether the benefit plan will satisfy ERISA’s diversification rules after the investment is made (the fiduciary rules of ERISA generally do not apply to IRAs but IRAs are subject to the prohibited transaction rules described below and those rules should be evaluated in connection with any contemplated investment in us by an IRA). In addition, a benefit plan fiduciary should consider whether the investment will result in the recognition of unrelated business taxable income by the benefit plan, and the effect such recognition would have on the benefit plan’s after tax investment return.
Prohibited Transactions
A “prohibited transaction” is defined to include most transactions involving “plan assets,” including (without limitation) the direct or indirect sale of property, lending of money, and provision of services, between a benefit plan and certain persons who have specified relationships with the benefit plan (such persons being a
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“party in interest,” and/or “disqualified person,” as described below). Acts of self-dealing by fiduciaries also constitute prohibited transactions. Unless a statutory, individual or class exemption is available, the Code imposes an excise tax on such prohibited transactions and may result in a loss of tax-exempt status with respect to an IRA. Accordingly, absent an exemption, a fiduciary of a benefit plan should not invest the assets of any benefit plan in us if our general partner or any of its affiliates is a fiduciary or other “party in interest” (as defined in ERISA) or “disqualified person” (as defined in the Code) with respect to the benefit plan.
Plan Assets
Fiduciary responsibilities and prohibited transaction restrictions generally apply with respect to the assets of a benefit plan, as well as any entity whose assets include such benefit plan’s assets. The U.S. Department of Labor has promulgated regulations, 29 C.F.R. Section 2510.3-101 as modified by Section 3(42) of ERISA (the “Plan Asset Regulations”), which identify a benefit plan’s assets when a benefit plan invests in an entity. Under the Plan Asset Regulations, if a benefit plan (or an entity whose assets include such benefit plan’s assets, collectively, a “benefit plan investor” within the meaning of the Plan Asset Regulations) invests in us, unless an exception applies, the benefit plan’s assets will include its interest in us and will also include our underlying assets.
There are four exceptions to the rule treating an entity’s underlying assets as plan assets. Generally, if a benefit plan invests in an entity, then such benefit plan’s assets will include its equity investment in the entity but will not include the entity’s underlying assets, so long as the entity is one:
whose security is a publicly offered security (i.e., the equity interests are held by 100 or more investors independent of the issuer and each other, freely transferable within the meaning of the Plan Asset Regulations and registered under certain provisions of the federal securities laws);
whose security is registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940;
which is an operating company, including a “venture capital operating company” or a “real estate operating company” (i.e., an entity primarily engaged in production of a product or service other than the investment of capital (i.e., an active business), an entity that primarily invests in such active businesses or invests certain real estate that is managed or developed); or
in which equity participation by benefit plan investors is not “significant” (i.e., benefit plan investors hold less than 25% of the total value of each class of equity interests in the entity).
It is expected that our common units will constitute publicly-offered securities, within the meaning of (a) immediately above. Thus, it is expected that our underlying assets generally will not be considered as “plan assets” under the Plan Assets Regulation.
Plan Asset Consequences
If our underlying assets were to be deemed to be “plan assets,” then, among other things, (a) the prudence and other fiduciary responsibility standards of ERISA would apply to our operations and (b) certain transactions in which we might seek to engage could constitute or involve “prohibited transactions” under ERISA and the Code. If a prohibited transaction occurs for which no exemption is available, the general partner and any other fiduciary that has engaged in the prohibited transaction could be required (a) to restore to the benefit plan any profit realized on the transaction and (b) to reimburse the benefit plan for any losses suffered by the benefit plan as a result of the transaction. In addition, each disqualified person (within the meaning of Section 4975 of the Code) involved could be subject to an excise tax equal to 15% of the amount involved in the prohibited transaction for each year (or portion of the year) the transaction continues and, unless the transaction is corrected (e.g., unwound) within statutorily required periods, to an additional tax of 100% of the amount involved (such taxes are referred to as “prohibited transaction excise taxes”). Benefit plan fiduciaries who decide to invest in us could, under certain circumstances, be liable for prohibited transactions or other violations as a result of their investment in us or as co-fiduciaries for actions taken by or on behalf of us or our general partner and/or its affiliates. With respect to IRAs, the occurrence of a prohibited transaction involving the individual who established the IRA, or his or her beneficiaries, would cause the IRA to lose its tax-exempt status. In addition, to the extent someone other than the IRA owner or beneficiary engaged in such prohibited transaction, such person could be subject to prohibited transaction excise taxes. The foregoing discussion is not comprehensive and other significant adverse results could also arise.
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All potential investors should consult with their own legal counsel concerning the potential impact of ERISA and the Code to such potential investor prior to making an investment in us. A benefit plan fiduciary can be personally liable for (a) losses incurred by a benefit plan resulting from a breach of fiduciary duties, (b) a civil penalty, which may be imposed by the U.S. Department of Labor, of as much as 20% of any amount recovered by the benefit plan, and (c) to the extent the benefit plan fiduciary is also a disqualified person within the meaning of Section 4975 of the Code, prohibited transaction excise taxes. Accordingly, before proceeding with an investment in us, a benefit plan fiduciary, taking into account the facts and circumstances of such benefit plan, should consider any applicable fiduciary standards and any prohibitions imposed against certain transactions under ERISA or the Code, and the permissibility of such investment under the governing documents of the benefit plan. Thus, taking into consideration the information contained herein, the benefit plan fiduciary should give special attention to (a) the Plan Asset Regulations and the impact of such regulations upon the benefit plan fiduciary’s decision to invest in us, (b) the prudence of an investment in us, and (c) otherwise applicable provisions of ERISA and the Code, considering all facts and circumstances of the investment which the benefit plan fiduciary knows or should know are relevant to the investment or a series or program of investments of which an investment we are a part.
Our general partner and counsel to the general partner make no representations with respect to whether an investment in us would be a suitable investment within any benefit plan’s particular investment portfolio.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We or the selling unitholder may sell the securities on a delayed or continuous basis in and outside the United States through the methods described below or through any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law, including through a combination of such methods.
A prospectus supplement, if required, will set forth any required information such as the terms of the offering and the method of distribution and will include the following information:
the name or names of any underwriters or agents;
the purchase price of the securities from us or the selling unitholder;
the net proceeds to us or the selling unitholder from the sale of the securities;
any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us or the selling unitholder;
any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting compensation to underwriters, dealers or agents;
any public offering price;
any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
any securities exchange or market on which the securities offered in a prospectus supplement may be listed.
Sale Through Underwriters or Dealers
If we or the selling unitholder use underwriters in the sale of securities, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account. The underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale.
Underwriters may offer securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities may be subject to conditions, and the underwriters may in such event be obligated to purchase all the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers.
Underwriters may sell our securities under this prospectus by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, which includes sales made directly on the NYSE, on any other existing trading market for such securities or to or through a market maker, or in privately negotiated transactions. Unless stated otherwise in any applicable prospectus supplement, the sales agent with respect to any such at the market offering will make all sales using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreeable terms between the sales agent and us or the selling unitholder. Any applicable prospectus supplement will include the amount of any compensation to be received by the sales agent.
During and after an offering through underwriters, the underwriters may purchase and sell the securities in the open market. These transactions may include overallotment and stabilizing transactions and purchases to cover syndicate short positions created in connection with the offering. The underwriters also may impose a penalty bid, which means that selling concessions allowed to syndicate members or other broker-dealers for the offered securities sold for their account may be reclaimed by the syndicate if the offered securities are repurchased by the syndicate in stabilizing or covering transactions. These activities may stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the offered securities, which may be higher than the price that might otherwise prevail in the open market. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue these activities at any time.
If we or the selling unitholder use dealers in the sale of securities, we or the selling unitholder will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale. We or the selling unitholder also may agree to sell, and the relevant
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underwriters or agents may agree to solicit offers to purchase, blocks of securities. The terms of each such agreement will be set forth in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. The dealers participating in any sale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. If required, we or the selling unitholder will include in any applicable prospectus supplement the names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction.
Direct Sales and Sales Through Agents
We or the selling unitholder may sell the securities directly. In that event, no underwriters or agents would be involved. We also may sell the securities through agents we designate from time to time to solicit offers from purchasers to purchase the securities included in this prospectus or to sell such securities in ordinary brokerage transactions on our or the selling unitholder’s behalf. If required, a prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities and will describe any commissions payable by us or the selling unitholder to the agent. Unless stated otherwise in any applicable prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.
We or the selling unitholder may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. We will describe the terms of any such sales in a prospectus supplement.
Delayed Delivery Contracts
We or the selling unitholder may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase securities from us or the selling unitholder at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts. These contracts would provide for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts would be subject only to those conditions described in a prospectus supplement. Such prospectus supplement will describe the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.
Remarketing
We or the selling unitholder may offer and sell any of the securities in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment by their terms or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms acting as principals for their own accounts or as our or the selling unitholder’s agents. The name of any remarketing firm, the terms of any remarketing agreement and the compensation to be paid to the remarketing firm will be included in a prospectus supplement, as required. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act.
Derivative Transactions
We or the selling unitholder may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If any applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions then the third parties may use securities pledged by us or the selling unitholder or borrowed from us or the selling unitholder or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of securities, and may use securities received from us or the selling unitholder in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of securities. The third parties in these sale transactions will be underwriters and will be identified in such applicable prospectus supplement or in a post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
General Information
In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters, dealers or agents may be deemed to have received compensation from us or the selling unitholder in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and also may receive commissions from securities purchasers for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act
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as agent. We will provide in a prospectus supplement any required information regarding any underwriting discounts or other compensation that we or the selling unitholder pay to underwriters or agents in connection with the securities offering, and any discounts, concessions or commissions that underwriters allow to dealers.
The selling unitholder and any underwriters, dealers or agents participating in a distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. We or the selling unitholder may agree to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents who participate in the distribution of securities against certain liabilities to which they may become subject in connection with the sale of the securities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act, or to contribute with respect to payments that the agents, dealers or underwriters may be required to make because of those liabilities. Agents, dealers and underwriters, or their affiliates or associates, may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us or the selling unitholder in the ordinary course of their businesses.
Some of the common units covered by this prospectus may be sold by the selling unitholder in private transactions or under Rule 144 under the Securities Act rather than pursuant to this prospectus or pursuant to other available exemptions from the registration requirements of the Securities Act.
Other than our common units, which are listed on the NYSE, each series of offered securities will have no established trading market. We may elect to list any series of offered securities on an exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a series of offered securities. However, they will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue market making at any time without notice. We cannot assure you as to the liquidity of, or the trading market for, any of our offered securities.
Because the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, views our common units and preferred units as interests in a direct participation program, any offering of common units or preferred units under the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part will be made in compliance with Rule 2310 of the FINRA Conduct Rules.
We have agreed to pay the fees and expenses of the registration of the common units offered and sold by the selling unitholder under the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The selling unitholder will pay any underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the common units sold by the selling unitholder.
To the extent required, this prospectus may be amended or supplemented from time to time to describe a specific plan of distribution. The place and time of delivery for the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered may be set forth in a prospectus supplement, if required.
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus and certain other legal matters will be passed upon for us by Baker Botts L.L.P., Houston, Texas. The selling unitholder and any underwriters, dealers or agents will be advised about legal matters relating to any offering by their own legal counsel.
EXPERTS
The audited financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other business and financial information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the internet website maintained by the SEC at www.sec.gov. You will also be able to obtain many of these documents, free of charge, from us by accessing our website at www.cvrpartners.com under the “Investor Relations” link and then the “SEC Filings” link. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus. This prospectus is part of a registration statement we have filed with the SEC relating to the securities we may offer.
As permitted by SEC rules, this prospectus does not contain all of the information we have included in the registration statement and the accompanying exhibits and schedules we file with the SEC. You may refer to the registration statement, exhibits and schedules for more information about us.
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we have filed with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K, unless otherwise specified in such current report) until the termination of the issuances under this prospectus. The documents we incorporate by reference include:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021;
our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2022 and June 30, 2022;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 4, 2022, February 7, 2022 and June 29, 2022; and
the description of our common units contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on April 4, 2011, as updated by Exhibit 4.1 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, together with any other amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
You may request a copy of these filings, other than an exhibit to these filings unless we have specifically incorporated that exhibit by reference into this prospectus, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
CVR Partners, LP
2277 Plaza Drive, Suite 500
Sugar Land, Texas 77479
Attention: Investor Relations
Telephone: (281) 207-3464
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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.
Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
The following table sets forth all expenses payable by us in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered.
Registration fee
$61,779.36
Trustee fees and expenses
Accounting fees and expenses
Legal fees and expenses
Printing fees and expenses
Rating agency fees and expenses
Miscellaneous
         
Total
$        

Estimated expenses are not currently known. The foregoing sets forth the general categories of expenses (other than underwriting discounts and commissions) that CVR Partners anticipates it will incur in connection with the offering of securities under this registration statement. An estimate of the aggregate expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being offered will be included in any applicable prospectus supplement.
Item 15.
Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
CVR Partners, LP
The section of the prospectus entitled “Description of Our Partnership Agreement—Indemnification” is incorporated herein by reference. Subject to any terms, conditions or restrictions set forth in our partnership agreement, Section 17-108 of the Delaware Act empowers a Delaware limited partnership to indemnify and hold harmless any partner or other person from and against all claims and demands whatsoever.
Subject to any terms, conditions or restrictions set forth in the applicable limited liability company agreement, Section 18-108 of the Delaware Limited Liability Company Act provides that a Delaware limited liability company may indemnify and hold harmless any member or manager or other person from and against any and all claims and demands whatsoever. The general partner may enter into indemnity agreements with each of its current directors and officers to give such persons additional contractual assurances regarding the scope of the indemnification set forth in general partner’s limited liability company agreement and to provide additional procedural protections.
Any underwriting agreement entered into in connection with the sale of the securities offered pursuant to this registration statement will provide for indemnification of officers and directors of the general partner, including for liabilities incurred under the Securities Act.
CVR Nitrogen Finance Corporation
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities (including reimbursement for expenses incurred) arising under the Securities Act.
As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the certificate of incorporation of Finance Corp. includes a provision that eliminates the personal liability of its directors for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability:
for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to Finance Corp. or its stockholders;
for acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;
under section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law regarding unlawful dividends and stock purchases; or
for any transaction for which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
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As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, Finance Corp.’s bylaws provide that:
Finance Corp. is required to indemnify its directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to very limited exceptions;
Finance Corp. may indemnify its other employees and agents to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to very limited exceptions;
Finance Corp. is required to advance expenses, as incurred, to its directors and officers in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to very limited exceptions;
Finance Corp. may advance expenses, as incurred, to its employees and agents in connection with a legal proceeding; and
the rights conferred in the bylaws are not exclusive.
At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director, officer or employee of Finance Corp. regarding which indemnification is sought, nor is Finance Corp. aware of any threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification.
The indemnification provisions in the Finance Corp.’s certificate of incorporation and bylaws may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of Finance Corp.’s directors and officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act.
Finance Corp. may purchase insurance against liabilities asserted against and expenses incurred by persons for its activities, regardless of whether it would have the power to indemnify the person against liabilities under its bylaws.
Subsidiary Guarantors
CVR Nitrogen GP, LLC, East Dubuque Nitrogen Fertilizers, LLC, Coffeyville Resources Nitrogen Fertilizers, LLC and CVR Nitrogen Holdings, LLC
Section 18-108 of the Delaware Limited Liability Company Act provides that a Delaware limited liability company, subject to such standards and restrictions, if any, as are set forth in such limited liability company’s limited liability company agreement, may indemnify and hold harmless any member or manager or other person from and against any and all claims and demands whatsoever.
The limited liability company operating agreements of each of East Dubuque Nitrogen Fertilizers, LLC and Coffeyville Resources Nitrogen Fertilizers, LLC provide generally for the indemnification of the members of each respective limited liability company.
The limited liability company operating agreement of CVR Nitrogen GP, LLC provides generally for the indemnification of the members, directors and officers of such limited liability company.
The limited liability company operating agreement of CVR Nitrogen Holdings, LLC provides generally for the indemnification of the members and officers of such limited liability company.
CVR Nitrogen LP
Section 17-08 of the Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act empowers a Delaware limited partnership to indemnify and hold harmless any partner or other person from and against all claims and demands whatsoever. CVR Nitrogen LP’s limited partnership agreement does not address indemnification.
The limited partnership agreement of CVR Nitrogen LP provides for the indemnification of the following persons in most circumstances to the fullest extent permitted by law:
CVR Nitrogen LP’s general partner;
any departing general partner;
any person who is or was a director, officer, partner, member, manager or managing member of CVR Nitrogen LP, its subsidiaries, the general partner or any departing general partner or any of their respective affiliates;
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any person who is or was serving as a director, officer, fiduciary, trustee, manager or managing member of another person owing a fiduciary duty to CVR Nitrogen LP or its subsidiary;
any person who controls, or has previously controlled, CVR Nitrogen LP’s general partner; or
any person designated by CVR Nitrogen LP’s general partner.
CVR Nitrogen LP may enter into indemnity agreements with any indemnitee and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of the general partner, its affiliates and other indemnitees.
Item 16.
Exhibits.
The following documents are filed as exhibits to this registration statement:
Number
Exhibit Title
Certificate of Formation of CVR GP, LLC, dated June 12, 2007 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.3 of the Partnership’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, File No. 333-149423, filed on February 28, 2008).
Third Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement of CVR GP, LLC, dated April 13, 2011 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.4 of the Partnership’s Form 10-K filed on February 24, 2012).
Amended and Restated Certificate of Limited Partnership of CVR Partners, LP, dated April 8, 2011 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 of the Partnership’s Form 8-K filed on April 13, 2011).
Composite Copy of the Second Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of CVR Partners, LP (as amended by Amendment No. 1) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 of the Partnership’s Form 10-Q filed on April 26, 2018).
Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of April 13, 2011, by and between CVR Partners, LP and Coffeyville Resources, LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.6 of the Partnership’s Form 8-K/A filed on May 23, 2011).
Form of Indenture for Debt Securities.
Opinion of Baker Botts L.L.P. regarding the validity of the securities being registered.
Opinion of Baker Botts L.L.P. relating to tax matters.
Consent of Grant Thornton LLP.
Consent of Baker Botts L.L.P. (included in Exhibit 5.1).
Consent of Baker Botts L.L.P. (included in Exhibit 8.1).
Powers of Attorney (contained on the signature pages hereof).
Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility and Qualification of the Trustee under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 for the Indenture for the Debt Securities.
Filing Fee Table.

We will file as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K (i) any underwriting, remarketing or agency agreement relating to the securities offered hereby, (ii) the instruments setting forth the terms of any securities, (iii) any additional required opinions of counsel with respect to the legality of the securities offered hereby or (iv) any required opinion of our counsel as to certain tax matters relative to the securities offered hereby.
*
Previously filed.
Item 17.
Undertakings.
(a)
The undersigned registrants hereby undertake:
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)
To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;
(ii)
To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed
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that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of a prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)
To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrants pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:
(i)
Each prospectus filed by the registrants pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)
Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which such prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5)
That, for purposes of determining liability of the registrants under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrants undertake that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrants pursuant to the registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrants will be sellers to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)
Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrants relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
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(ii)
Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrants or used or referred to by the undersigned registrants;
(iii)
That portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrants or their securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrants; and
(iv)
Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrants to the purchaser.
(b)
The undersigned registrants hereby undertake that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of such registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c)
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrants pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the undersigned registrants have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrants of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrants in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrants will, unless in the opinion of their counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(d)
The undersigned registrants hereby undertake that:
(a)
For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.
(b)
For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Sugar Land, State of Texas, on August 5, 2022.
 
CVR PARTNERS, LP
 
 
 
 
By: CVR GP, LLC
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
 
 
Mark A. Pytosh
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints each of Mark A. Pytosh and Dane J. Neumann, as his true and lawful attorney or attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power to act with or without the others and with full power of substitution and resubstitution, to execute in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents and each of them full power and authority, to do and perform in the name and on behalf of the undersigned, in any and all capacities, each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in and about the premises, to all intents and purposes and as fully as they might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or their substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on August 5, 2022.
Name
Title
 
 
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
/s/ DANE J. NEUMANN
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary
(Principal Financial Officer)
Dane J. Neumann
 
 
/s/ JEFFREY D. CONAWAY
Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Corporate Controller
(Principal Accounting Officer)
Jeffrey D. Conaway
 
 
/s/ DAVID L. LAMP
Executive Chairman, Chairman of the Board and Director
David L. Lamp
 
 
/s/ DONNA R. ECTON
Director
Donna R. Ecton
 
 
/s/ FRANK M. MULLER, JR.
Director
Frank M. Muller, Jr.
 
 
/s/ PETER K. SHEA
Director
Peter K. Shea
 
 
/s/ DAVID WILLETTS
Director
David Willetts
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Sugar Land, State of Texas, on August 5, 2022.
 
CVR NITROGEN FINANCE CORPORATION
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
 
 
Mark A. Pytosh
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints each of Mark A. Pytosh and Dane J. Neumann, as his true and lawful attorney or attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power to act with or without the others and with full power of substitution and resubstitution, to execute in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents and each of them full power and authority, to do and perform in the name and on behalf of the undersigned, in any and all capacities, each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in and about the premises, to all intents and purposes and as fully as they might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or their substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on August 5, 2022.
Name
Title
 
 
/s/ MARK. A. PYTOSH
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
/s/ DANE J. NEUMANN
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary
(Principal Financial Officer)
Dane J. Neumann
 
 
/s/ JEFFREY D. CONAWAY
Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Corporate Controller
(Principal Accounting Officer)
Jeffrey D. Conaway
 
 
/s/ DAVID L. LAMP
Director
David L. Lamp
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Sugar Land, State of Texas, on August 5, 2022.
 
COFFEYVILLE RESOURCES NITROGEN FERTILIZERS, LLC
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
 
 
Mark A. Pytosh
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints each of Mark A. Pytosh and Dane J. Neumann, as his true and lawful attorney or attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power to act with or without the others and with full power of substitution and resubstitution, to execute in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents and each of them full power and authority, to do and perform in the name and on behalf of the undersigned, in any and all capacities, each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in and about the premises, to all intents and purposes and as fully as they might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or their substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on August 5, 2022.
Name
Title
 
 
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
President and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
/s/ DANE J. NEUMANN
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary
(Principal Financial Officer)
Dane J. Neumann
 
 
/s/ JEFFREY D. CONAWAY
Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Corporate Controller
(Principal Accounting Officer)
Jeffrey D. Conaway
II-8

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Sugar Land, State of Texas, on August 5, 2022.
 
CVR NITROGEN, LP
 
 
 
 
By:
CVR Nitrogen GP, LLC
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
 
 
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints each of Mark A. Pytosh and Dane J. Neumann, as his true and lawful attorney or attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power to act with or without the others and with full power of substitution and resubstitution, to execute in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents and each of them full power and authority, to do and perform in the name and on behalf of the undersigned, in any and all capacities, each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in and about the premises, to all intents and purposes and as fully as they might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or their substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on August 5, 2022.
Name
Title
 
 
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
President and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
/s/ DANE J. NEUMANN
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary
(Principal Financial Officer)
Dane J. Neumann
 
 
/s/ JEFFREY D. CONAWAY
Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Corporate Controller (Principal Accounting Officer)
Jeffrey D. Conaway
II-9

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Sugar Land, State of Texas, on August 5, 2022.
 
CVR NITROGEN GP, LLC
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
 
 
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints each of Mark A. Pytosh and Dane J. Neumann, as his true and lawful attorney or attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power to act with or without the others and with full power of substitution and resubstitution, to execute in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents and each of them full power and authority, to do and perform in the name and on behalf of the undersigned, in any and all capacities, each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in and about the premises, to all intents and purposes and as fully as they might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or their substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on August 5, 2022.
Name
Title
 
 
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
President and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
/s/ DANE J. NEUMANN
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer,
Treasurer and Assistant Secretary
(Principal Financial Officer)
Dane J. Neumann
 
 
/s/ JEFFREY D. CONAWAY
Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Corporate Controller
(Principal Accounting Officer)
Jeffrey D. Conaway
II-10

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Sugar Land, State of Texas, on August 5, 2022.
 
CVR NITROGEN HOLDINGS, LLC
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
 
 
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints each of Mark A. Pytosh and Dane J. Neumann, as his true and lawful attorney or attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power to act with or without the others and with full power of substitution and resubstitution, to execute in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents and each of them full power and authority, to do and perform in the name and on behalf of the undersigned, in any and all capacities, each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in and about the premises, to all intents and purposes and as fully as they might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or their substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on August 5, 2022.
Name
Title
 
 
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
President and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
/s/ DANE J. NEUMANN
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary
(Principal Financial Officer)
Dane J. Neumann
 
 
/s/ JEFFREY D. CONAWAY
Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Corporate Controller
(Principal Accounting Officer)
Jeffrey D. Conaway
II-11

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Sugar Land, State of Texas, on August 5, 2022.
 
EAST DUBUQUE NITROGEN FERTILIZERS, LLC
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
 
 
Mark A. Pytosh
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints each of Mark A. Pytosh and Dane J. Neumann, as his true and lawful attorney or attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power to act with or without the others and with full power of substitution and resubstitution, to execute in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents and each of them full power and authority, to do and perform in the name and on behalf of the undersigned, in any and all capacities, each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in and about the premises, to all intents and purposes and as fully as they might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or their substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on August 5, 2022.
Name
Title
 
 
/s/ MARK A. PYTOSH
President and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
Mark A. Pytosh
 
 
/s/ DANE J. NEUMANN
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer,
Treasurer and Assistant Secretary
(Principal Financial Officer)
Dane J. Neumann
 
 
/s/ JEFFREY D. CONAWAY
Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Corporate Controller
(Principal Accounting Officer)
Jeffrey D. Conaway
II-12
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